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Table 2 Clinical results: post-intervention and retention effects

From: Concurrent neuromechanical and functional gains following upper-extremity power training post-stroke

Intervention effects     
Measure FTP HYBRID E.S.  
Primary Outcome
Wolf Motor Function Test (FAS, Range 0-5 pts) 0.10 0.24 0.50 *
  (SE 0.05) (SE 0.05)   
Secondary Outcomes
UE Fugl-Meyer Motor Score (66 pts) 2.94 2.89 0.2 n.s.
  MID ≥5 (SE 0.72) (SE 0.79)   
Fugl-Meyer Shoulder-Elbow Score (30 pts) 1.83 0.79 0.87 n.s.
  MID ≥3 (SE 0.40) (SE 0.38)   
Ashworth Scale (shoulder + elbow, 8 pts) -0.16 -0.11 0.07 n.s.
  MID ≥1 (SE 0.24) (SE 0.24)   
Functional Independence Measure (91 pts) 0.67 2.21 0.81 *
  MID ≥2 (SE 0.63) (SE 0.61)   
Retention Effects (6-month Follow Up)    E.S.  
Measure     
Primary Outcome
Wolf Motor Function Test (FAS, Range 0-5 pts) 0.10 0.65 *
  (SE 0.05)   
Secondary Outcomes
UE Fugl-Meyer Motor Score (66 pts) 7.2 3.09 *
  MID ≥5 (SE 1.55)   
Fugl-Meyer Shoulder-Elbow Score (30 pts) 2.82 2.35 *
  MID ≥3 (SE 0.51)   
Ashworth Scale (shoulder + elbow, 8 pts) -0.21 0.28 n.s.
  MID ≥1 (SE 0.24)   
Functional Independence Measure (91 pts) 3.6 1.89 *
  MID ≥2 (SE 1.21)   
  1. Data are presented as mean (SE) change scores and reflect mean changes due to the treatment specified (i.e, Post-Pre for block involving FTP or HYBRID). Retention effects at 6-month follow up reflect change scores from the follow up period (i.e., 6-months–post-treatment).
  2. Unless otherwise noted, statistical significance was set at p < .05 (denoted as *) and reflects significant differences between treatments. Secondary outcomes were tested for differences in the proportion of participants demonstrating an MID post-treatment. Effect sizes (ES) reflect between-group differences. 6-month follow up data reflect retention and/or advancement of primary treatment effects. Due to the cross-over design effects reflect overall differences relative to baseline.