Experimental setup, cadence of movement and robotic parameters during therapy. (A) A subject during rehabilitative treatment. The patients moved the handle from a central target to eight ones placed around a circumference. During this task EMG signals were recorded from ten upper arm and shoulder muscles (B) Mean and standard deviation of cadence (bpm) in patients (four experimental sessions), and healthy participants (single session). The label * highlights when the difference between data of healthy and post-stroke patients are significantly different (p < 0.05). (C) Modifications of robotic parameters pre vs. post therapy. The significance of pre vs. post comparison, carried out by the Wilcoxon test (p-value), is reported above each subplot. The right column represents data related to the healthy control group. The significance (p-value) of the comparison between patients and healthy subjects is reported above each subplot. In particular: labels “pre” and “post” refer to trials before and after the treatment. P-values highlighted in bold are those statistically significant (p < 0.05).