Skip to main content

Table 1 Group mean (± SD) peak extension (positive) and flexion (negative) muscle moments and concentric (positive) and eccentric (negative) muscle powers for hip, knee and ankle (intact limb only) joints when using rigid ( rig F) and hydraulic ( hy A-F) ankle-foot devices

From: Walking speed related joint kinetic alterations in trans-tibial amputees: impact of hydraulic 'ankle’ damping

  Speed Normalised   Absolute  
  hyA-F rigF p value hyA-F rigF p value
  Nm/(kg.m/s)   Nm.kg-1  
Intact hip moment + 0.56 (0.17) / - 0.77 (0.16) + 0.61 (0.13) / - 0.82 (0.21) 0.18 / 0.038 (foot) + 0.53 (0.49) / - 0.73 (0.70) + 0.56 (0.52) / - 0.76 (0.73) 0.30 / 0.11 (foot)
+ 0.53 (0.25) / - 0.70 (0.21) + 0.64 (0.19) / - 0.88 (0.23) 0.28 /0.30 (speed) + 0.61 (0.55) / - 0.82 (0.77) + 0.69 (0.63) / - 0.94 (0.90) 0.06 / 0.005 (speed)
+ 0.64 (0.22) / - 0.77 (0.16) + 0.83 (0.73) / - 1.00 (0.45) 0.71 / 0.35 (interact) + 0.88 (0.76) / - 1.05 (0.99) + 1.20 (0.73) / - 1.38 (1.10) 0.59 / 0.33 (interact)
Intact knee moment + 0.55 (0.22) / - 0.23 (0.20) + 0.60 (0.31) / - 0.21 (0.18) 0.17 / 0.29 (foot) + 0.54 (0.24) / - 0.20 (0.15) + 0.56 (0.31) / - 0.18 (0.15) 0.27 / 0.13 (foot)
+ 0.47 (0.23) / - 0.16 (0.17) + 0.76 (0.14) / - 0.17 (0.17) 0.21 / < 0.001 (speed) + 0.56 (0.28) / - 0.17 (0.14) + 0.79 (0.35) / - 0.18 (0.15) 0.002 / 0.12 (speed)
+ 0.69 (0.25) / - 0.15 (0.17) + 0.69 (0.26) / - 0.13 (0.19) 0.09 / 0.28 (interact) + 0.96 (0.43) / - 0.18 (0.16) + 0.96 (0.46) / - 0.15 (0.17) 0.11 / 0.40 (interact)
Intact ankle moment + 1.29 (0.38) / - 0.14 (0.05) + 1.32 (0.39) / - 0.18 (0.04) 0.11 / 0.044 (foot) + 1.20 (0.30) / - 0.13 (0.05) + 1.19 (0.22) / - 0.16 (0.04) 0.54 / 0.28 (foot)
+ 1.13 (0.37) / - 0.19 (0.06) + 1.27 (0.47) / - 0.18 (0.09) < 0.001 / 0.28 (speed) + 1.30 (0.28) / - 0.22 (0.07) + 1.31 (0.31) / - 0.20 (0.09) 0.35 / 0.004 (speed)
+ 0.95 (0.30) / - 0.15 (0.03) + 0.92 (0.37) / - 0.16 (0.04) 0.10 / 0.07 (interact) + 1.27 (0.35) / - 0.20 (0.04) + 1.21 (0.37) / - 0.22 (0.41) 0.52 / 0.06 (interact)
Residual hip moment + 0.37 (0.32) / - 0.62 (0.37) + 0.41 (0.25) / - 0.64 (0.32) 0.21 / 0.14 (foot) + 0.33 (0.25) / - 0.57 (0.32) + 0.37 (0.20) / - 0.59 (0.29) 0.26 / 0.43 (foot)
+ 0.36 (0.32) / - 0.60 (0.36) + 0.43 (0.27) / - 0.66 (0.34) 0.76 / 0.65 (speed) + 0.40 (0.31) / - 0.68 (0.35) + 0.44 (0.24) / - 0.69 (0.30) 0.016 / < 0.001 (speed)
+ 0.37 (0.28) / - 0.58 (0.35) + 0.39 (0.27) / - 0.63 (0.32) 0.48 / 0.27 (interact) + 0.47 (0.31) / - 0.75 (0.39) + 0.48 (0.27) / - 0.81 (0.30) 0.59 / 0.44 (interact)
Residual knee moment + 0.04 (0.02) / - 0.02 (0.01) + 0.04 (0.02) / - 0.01 (0.01) 0.47 / 0.09 (foot) + 0.03 (0.01) / - 0.02 (0.01) + 0.03 (0.01) / - 0.01 (0.01) 0.76 / 0.78 (foot)
+ 0.04 (0.02) / - 0.01 (0.02) + 0.04 (0.02) / - 0.01 (0.01) 0.021 / 0.049 (speed) + 0.04 (0.01) / - 0.01 (0.01) + 0.05 (0.02) / - 0.01 (0.01) < 0.001 / 0.84 (speed)
+ 0.03 (0.02) / - 0.02 (0.01) + 0.03 (0.01) / - 0.01 (0.00) 0.20 / 0.18 (interact) + 0.06 (0.02) / - 0.02 (0.01) + 0.05 (0.02) / - 0.02 (0.01) 0.51 / 0.35 (interact)
  W/(kg.m/s)   W.kg-1  
Intact hip power + 1.51 (0.90) / - 0.43 (0.32) + 1.68 (0.98) / - 0.40 (0.14) 0.13 / 0.24 (foot) + 0.73 (0.22) / - 0.39 (0.23) + 0.78 (0.18) / - 0.37 (0.14) 0.25 / 0.24 (foot)
+ 1.68 (0.67) / - 0.36 (0.17) + 1.99 (1.01) / - 0.47 (0.25) 0.53 / 0.11 (speed) + 0.91 (0.26) / - 0.42 (0.21) + 1.04 (0.34) / - 0.51 (0.29) 0.12 / 0.036 (speed)
+ 1.28 (0.76) / - 0.50 (0.16) + 1.26 (0.75) / - 0.77 (0.65) 0.53 / 0.24 (interact) + 1.15 (0.51) / - 0.67 (0.24) + 1.66 (1.83) / - 1.12 (1.20) 0.46 / 0.27 (interact)
Intact knee power + 0.38 (0.17) / - 0.92 (0.24) + 0.38 (0.23) / - 0.98 (0.39) 0.09 / 0.08 (foot) + 0.36 (0.18) / - 0.91 (0.35) + 0.35 (0.23) / - 0.93 (0.43) 0.13 / 0.13 (foot)
+ 0.37 (0.16) / - 0.84 (0.38) + 0.60 (0.37) / - 1.31 (0.56) < 0.001 / 0.25 (speed) + 0.44 (0.21) / - 1.02 (0.51) + 0.63 (0.35) / - 1.41 (0.58) < 0.001 / < 0.001 (speed)
+ 0.62 (0.31) / - 1.03 (0.32) + 0.69 (0.25) / - 1.12 (0.37) 0.11 / 0.06 (interact) + 0.87 (0.55) / - 1.46 (0.61) + 0.96 (0.46) / - 1.55 (0.63) 0.16 / 0.09 (interact)
Intact ankle power + 1.51 (0.90) / - 0.74 (0.27) + 1.68 (0.98) / - 0.79 (0.29) 0.30 / 0.10 (foot) + 1.47 (0.90) / - 0.70 (0.24) + 1.55 (0.91) / - 0.72 (0.24) 0.74 / 0.44 (foot)
+ 1.68 (0.67) / - 0.77 (0.48) + 1.99 (1.01) / - 0.87 (0.53) 0.048 / 0.21 (speed) + 1.93 (0.80) / - 0.92 (0.68) + 2.09 (0.91) / - 0.95 (0.70) 0.14 / 0.49 (speed)
+ 1.28 (0.75) / - 0.54 (0.27) + 1.26 (0.75) / - 0.56 (0.29) 0.47 / 0.41 (interact) + 1.85 (1.27) / - 0.72 (0.35) + 1.80 (1.29) / - 0.74 (0.38) 0.82 / 0.95 (interact)
Residual hip power + 0.67 (0.38) / - 0.49 (0.35) + 0.72 (0.37) / - 0.67 (0.25) 0.63 / 0.58 (foot) + 0.63 (0.26) / - 0.45 (0.28) + 0.65 (0.30) / - 0.53 (0.24) 0.93 / 0.82 (foot)
+ 0.72 (0.44) / - 0.57 (0.47) + 0.73 (0.36) / - 0.58 (0.35) 0.89 / 0.66 (speed) + 0.81 (0.39) / - 0.64 (0.48) + 0.76 (0.28) / - 0.62 (0.34) < 0.001 / 0.08 (speed)
+ 0.69 (0.40) / - 0.54 (0.41) + 0.74 (0.41) / - 0.53 (0.38) 0.74 / 0.41 (interact) + 0.89 (0.39) / - 0.69 (0.49) + 0.94 (0.41) / - 0.67 (0.43) 0.34 / 0.30 (interact)
Residual knee power + 0.10 (0.15) / - 0.46 (0.50) + 0.06 (0.07) / - 0.41 (0.44) 0.11 / 0.07 (foot) + 0.10 (0.15) / - 0.43 (0.48) + 0.05 (0.05) / - 0.37 (0.40) 0.10 / 0.08 (foot)
+ 0.10 (0.12) / - 1.05 (1.12) + 0.04 (0.03) / - 0.42 (0.45) 0.76 / 0.017 (speed) + 0.11 (0.14) / - 1.20 (1.34) + 0.04 (0.02) / - 0.42 (0.41) 0.99 / 0.025 (speed)
+ 0.09 (0.15) / - 0.56 (0.69) + 0.03 (0.02) / - 0.42 (0.46) 0.90 / 0.034 (interact) + 0.12 (0.20) / - 0.79 (1.02) + 0.04 (0.02) / - 0.58 (0.67) 0.83 / 0.036 (interact)
  1. Values normalised to walking speed are in the left-hand columns and absolute values in the right-hand columns. Results are listed downwards - slow, customary speed and fast. Statistically significant differences are in bold.