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Table 3 Effect of therapies on Functional Independence Measure scale

From: Virtual reality for the rehabilitation of the upper limb motor function after stroke: a prospective controlled trial

    ULC therapy   RFVE therapy
   n Before After n Before After
Overall   113 95.0 ± 21.4 101.9 ± 19.1* 263 103.2 ± 20.7 110.8 ± 16.4*
Motor impairment F-M UE score ≤ 20 19 84.2 ± 26.2 89.3 ± 24.2* 35 92.8 ± 20.7 101.2 ± 17.9*
21 ≤ F-M UE score ≤ 40 29 94.0 ± 15.5 102.0 ± 15.9* 72 100.4 ± 24.0 108.0 ± 19.0*
F-M UE score > 40 65 98.5 ± 21.3 105.6 ± 17.3* 156 106.9 ± 18.0 114.2 ± 13.5*
Stroke to Rehabilitation Interval ≤ 3months 32 88.2 ± 25.8 100.0 ± 22.6* 68 95.9 ± 23.3 110.1 ± 16.5*
3 < months < 12 57 95.6 ± 18.2 100.4 ± 16.3* 113 101.7 ± 20.0† 108.2 ± 17.2*
≥ 12 months 24 102.5 ± 20.2 108.3 ± 20.0 82 111.0 ± 16.8† 114.8 ± 14.4*
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD. n number of patients ULC Upper Limb Conventional, RFVE Reinforced Feedback in Virtual Environment, F-M UE Fugl – Meyer Upper Extremity.
  2. * p ≤ 0.05 within group analysis (Wilcoxon test).
  3. † p ≤ 0.05 between group analysis (Mann–Whitney U test).