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Table 2 Criterion classification methods used to assess inertial-sensor-based fall risk measures

From: Review of fall risk assessment in geriatric populations using inertial sensors

  Retrospective history Prospective occurrence Assessment tools
Auvinet et al., 2003 [39] 1 year - -
Bautmans et al., 2011 [40] 6 months - TUG >15 s or Tinetti score ≤24
Caby et al., 2011 [41] 1 year - 25 m walking, Mini Motor test, Tinetti test, TUG, Physical Performance Scale, Fukuda test, One Legged Stance test
Cho and Kamen 1998 [18] 1 year - Self-reported frequent fallers
Doheny et al., 2011 [42] 5 years - Self-reported fear of falling or presence of cardiovascular risk factors
Doheny et al., 2012 [43] 5 years - -
Doi et al., 2013 [44] - 1 year (reported weekly) -
Ganea et al., 2011 [45] - - Fried’s criteria for frailty
Giansanti et al., 2006, 2008 [4648] Unspecified - Tinetti test level 3
Gietzelt et al., 2009 [49] - - STRATIFY score (includes 2 month fall history) ≥2
Greene et al., 2010, 2012 [50, 51] 5 years - -
Ishigaki et al., 2011 [52] - - One Legged Stance test (eyes open) ≤15 s and/or TUG ≥11 s
Kojima et al., 2008 [53] 1 year - -
Laessoe et al., 2007 [54] - 1 year (fall diary with contact at 6 months) -
Latt et al., 2009 [55] 1 year - -
Liu et al., 2008 [56] Unspecified - Falling during gait perturbation assessment, medical history, self-identification as frequent faller
Liu et al., 2011 [57] - - PPA
Liu et al., 2011 [58] 1 year - -
Marschollek et al., 2008 [59] - - TUG > 20 s, STRATIFY score >2, Barthel Index: Mobility score <10
Marschollek et al., 2009 [60] In-hospital history - -
Marschollek et al., 2011 [61, 62] - 1 year -
Martinez-Ramirez et al., 2011 [63] - - Body mass loss ≥4.5 kg, low energy, low physical activity, weakness, slowness
Menz et al., 2003 [64] - - Overall fall risk score (low, moderate, high risk) based on vision, peripheral sensation, strength, reaction time, balance tests
Moe-Nilssen et al., 2005 [65] 1 year - -
Najafi et al., 2002 [17] - - Fall risk score ≥5 based on balance, gait, visual, cognitive and depressive disorders, history of falls.
Narayanan et al., 2008, 2009, 2010 [6668] - - PPA
O’Sullivan et al., 2009 [1] 1 year - -
Paterson et al., 2011 [69] - 1 year (reported monthly) -
Redmond et al., 2010 [70] - - PPA
Schwesig et al., 2012 [71] - 1 year (recorded by caregivers) -
Senden et al., 2012 [72] - - Tinetti test ≤24 (Low risk 19-24, High risk <19)
Toebes et al., 2012 [73] 1 year - -
Weiss et al., 2011 [74] 1 year - -
Yack and Berger [75] 1 year - Self report of unsteady or unstable walking and/or standing
  1. Assessment tool thresholds indicate a high fall risk category.