Skip to main content

Table 3 Significant inertial-sensor-based variables (p < 0.05) with associated sensor location

From: Review of fall risk assessment in geriatric populations using inertial sensors

Category Variable Sensor location
Position and Angle Variables AP peak to peak amplitude LB [52]
ML peak to peak amplitude LB [52]
V peak to peak amplitude LB [52]
AP and ML postural sway length during stance LB [43, 51]
Trunk tilt St [44]
Angular Velocity Variables Min, mean, max AP Sha [50]
Min, mean, max ML Sha [50]
Min, mean, max V Sha [50]
AP peak to peak amplitude LB [52]
ML peak to peak amplitude Sha [50]
V peak to peak amplitude LB [52]
Postural sway velocity during stance LB [43, 51]
Mean squared modulus ratio for postural sway LB [4648]
AP RMS during stance LB [51]
ML RMS during stance LB [51]
V RMS during stance LB [51]
3D RMS during stance LB [51]
ML variability UB [73]
Linear Acceleration Variables Median AP LB [74]
SD of AP He [18], LB [74], Hi [18]
Peak AP UB [75]
Peak V UB [75]
AP peak to peak amplitude LB [52]
ML peak to peak amplitude LB [49, 52, 60]
V peak to peak amplitude LB [52]
AP RMS He [55], LB [55]
ML RMS He [55], LB [55]
V RMS He [55], LB [55, 71]
AP RMS during stance LB [51]
ML RMS during stance LB [51]
V RMS during stance LB [51]
2D RMS (ML and AP) during stance LB [43]
3D RMS LB [1, 57]
3D RMS during stance LB [51]
Jerk St [42]
Sit to stand AP range LB [74]
Stand to sit AP range LB [74]
Sit to stand Jerk LB [74]
Dissimilarity of AST subcomponents LB [57, 67]
Dissimilarity of STS subcomponents LB [67, 68, 70]
Spatial Variables Number of steps LB [60], Sha [50]
Step length He [64], LB [60, 64, 72]
Temporal Variables Gait Speed He [55, 64], LB [40, 44, 55, 64, 72, 74]
Cadence He [64], LB [39, 58, 64], Kn [41], Sha [50], An [41]
Step duration LB [74], Sha [50]
Step duration variability He [55], LB [55]
Stride time Fo [71]
SD of stride time Fo [71]
% GC double support Sha [50]
TUG time LB [66, 74], Sha [50]
TUG subcomponent time LB [57, 66], Sha [50]
TUG: number of gait cycles Sha [50]
STS time LB [66]
STS subcomponent times LB [57], Th [42]
SD of STS subcomponent times LB [66]
Normalized SD of STS subcomponent times LB [58, 66]
Sit/stand transition duration St [17, 45]
Sit/stand SD of transition duration St [17]
AST time LB [66]
AST subcomponent times LB [57, 58, 68, 70]
SD of AST subcomponent times LB [66]
Normalized SD of AST subcomponent times LB [67, 68, 70]
Energy Variables Kinetic Energy LB [49]
Local wavelet energy St [45]
Summed magnitude area of acceleration LB [57, 58, 67]
25% quartile frequency He [18], Hi [18]
50% quartile frequency He [18], Hi [18]
75% quartile frequency He [18], Hi [18]
Sway frequency during stance LB [51]
Number of FFT peaks LB [61, 62]
Dominant FFT peak parameters LB [59, 61, 62]
1st FFT peak parameters Sho [41], El [41], Wr [41], Kn [41], An [41]
Ratio of magnitude of even harmonics to odd harmonics He [55, 64], UB [44, 75], LB [44, 50, 52, 53, 59, 72]
Area under 1st 6 harmonics divided by remaining area LB [57, 58]
Ratio of 1st 4 harmonics to magnitude of 1st 6 harmonics LB [57, 58]
ML spectral edge frequency St [42]
Entropy of power spectrum LB [53]
Correlation between left and right arm signals Sho [41], El [41], Wr [41]
Maximum V acceleration Lyapunov Exponent Hi [56], Kn [56], An [56]
Maximum AV Lyapunov Exponent UB [73], Hi [56], Kn [56], An [56]
Autocorrelation coefficients of acceleration signal LB [39, 65]
Trunk level forces St [45]
Continuous wavelet transform LB [63]
Discrete wavelet transform St [45], LB [63]
Detrended fluctuation fractal scaling index of acceleration derived stride time Fo [69]
Fractal dimension of acceleration versus AV St [45]
Number of abnormal sit/stand transitions St [17]
  1. An, ankle, AP, anteroposterior, AST, Alternating Step Test, AV, angular velocity, COP, center of pressure, CoV, coefficient of variation, El, elbow, FFT, Fast Fourier Transform, Fo, foot, He, head, Hi, hip, GC, gait cycle, Kn, knee, LB, lower back, ML, mediolateral, RMS, Root Mean Square, SD, standard deviation, Sha, shank, Sho, shoulder, St, sternum, STS, sit-to-stand transitions, Th, thigh, TUG, Timed Up and Go, UB, upper back, V, vertical, Wr, wrist.