Manuscript Structure. Structure of the manuscript summarizing how studies included in this review were grouped together into relevance-based subsections. The Applications in Elderly Care section is comprised of two subsections: 1) Fall detection and 2) Fall risk reduction. The Applications in Stroke Rehabilitation section contains: 1) Evaluation of Kinect’s spatial accuracy and 2) Kinect-based rehabilitation methods. We have included a third section titled ‘Serious and exercise games’ for studies that we believe are indirectly related to the first two sections and present a complete system for elderly care or stroke rehabilitation in a Kinect-based game format. There are many applications of the Kinect in rehabilitative and assistance-based research that, while extremely important, fall outside the scope of this systematic review.