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Table 1 Training modalities in robot-mediated therapy

From: Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review

Modality Specifications Schema
Assistive Subject’s voluntary activity is required during the entire movement. Robots can assist either providing weight support or providing forces aiming at task completion.
Active The robot is being used as a measurement device, without providing force to subject’s limb.
Passive Robot performs the movement without any account of subject’s activity.
Passive-mirrored This is for bimanual robots, when the unimpaired limb is used to control the passive movement of the affected side.
Active-assistive Assistance towards task completion is supplied only when the subject has not been able to perform actively. At this stage, the subject experiences passive movement of the limb.
Corrective Subject is stopped by the robot when errors (e.g. distance from a desired position) overcome a predefined value and then asked to perform actively again.
Path guidance Robot guides the subject when deviating from pre-defined trajectory.
Resistive Robot provides force opposing the movement.