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Table 3 Overview of included studies: characteristics

From: Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review

Device Arm segment Phase # of groups References # of subjects (total) Training duration in hours
[mean (SD)]
Training modalities HRI feature
MIT-MANUS (InMotion2) S, E Acute 6 [4348] 132 24.2 (10.9) P, As, AA, PG SDG, NC, P, PF, TA
   Chronic 20 [4859] 394 22.3 (17.0) As, AA, R, Ac SDG, MA, NC, PF, S, TA
MIT-MANUS (InMotion2) S, E, F, W, H Chronic 3 [27, 49] 64 24.0 (10.4) As, AA SDG, PF
MIT-MANUS (InMotion2 + 3) S, E, F, W Chronic 3 [5961] 63 36.0 (0) As, AA, Ac SDG, NC, PF
Bi-Manu-Track F, W Acute 2 [62, 63] 53 10.0 (0) P, PM, R P, PM, S
   Chronic 5 [6467] 48 26.8 (12.9) P, PM, R, Ac NC, P, PM, S
MIME S, E Acute 2 [68] 36 12.2 (5.1) P, PM, AA, R NC, P, PM,S
   Subacute 3 [69] 24 15.0 (0) P, PM, AA, R SDG, P, PM, TA, D
   Chronic 4 [7072] 37 24.0 (0) P, PM, AA, PG, R SDG, P, PM, TA, D
1 DoF robotic device W Chronic 1 [73] 8 20.0 (0) P, AA, A P, TA
2 DoF robotic device S, E Chronic 1 [73] 12 20.0 (0) P, AA, A P, TA
3 DoF wrist robotic exoskeleton F, W Chronic 1 [74] 9 10.0 (0) As, Co, Ac MA,D
5DoF industrial robot S, E, W Acute 1 [75] 8 21.4 (0) P, AA, Ac P
Amadeo H Acute 2 [76, 77] 14 9.2 (5.9) P, AA P, NC
   Chronic 1 [78] 12 18.0 (0) AA NC, P
   Mixed 2 [79] 15 15.0 (0) P, As, Ac NC, P
ACT3D S, E Subacute 2 [80] 14 Unknown As, R ACF
ARM-Guide S, E Chronic 1 [81] 10 18.0 (0) AA PF, TA
AMES W, H Chronic 1 [82] 5 65.0 (0) P P
BFIAMT S, E Chronic 1 [83] 20 12.0 (0) PM, C, R MA, PM, TW
Cyberglove, Cybergrasp + Haptic Master S, E, W, H Chronic 1 [84] 12 22.0 (0) AA ACF
CYBEX, NORM W Chronic 1 [85] Unknown (27 in total) Unknown P P
PolyJbot W Chronic 1 [85] Unknown (27 in total) Unknown AA EMG
EMG-driven system E Chronic 1 [86] 7 30.0 (0) AA EMG
  W Chronic 2 [87, 88] 15 42.0 (0) As, AA, R EMG, S
  H Chronic 1 [89] 10 20.0 (0) As, Ac EMG
AJB E Chronic 1 [90] 6 18.0 (0) AA EMG
Hand mentor robot system W, H Mixed 1 [91] 10 30.0 (0) P, AA, Ac P, TA
Myoelectrically controlled robotic system E Chronic 2 [92, 93] 14 16.0 (5.7) As, AA, R EMG, S
Gentle/S S, E Mixed 2 [94] 31 9.0 (6.4) P, AA, Co, Ac NC, P
Haptic Knob F, W, H Chronic 1 [95] 13 18.0 (0) P, AA, R MA, P
HWARD W, H Chronic 3 [96, 97] 36 22.8 (0.6) AA, Ac P, TA
Braccio di Ferro S, E Chronic 1 [98] 10 11.3 (0) P, AA, Co, R, Ac CF, T,D
MEMOS S, E Acute 1 [99] 9 16.0 (0) P, AA, Ac P, TA,
   Chronic 3 [99101] 49 16.0 (0) P, AA, Ac P, TA
MEMOS, Braccio di Ferro S, E Subacute 1 [102] 20 15.0 (0) AA, Ac TA
   Chronic 1 [102] 21 15.0 (0) AA, Ac TA
REHAROB S, E Mixed 1 [103] 15 10.0 (0) P P
NeReBot S, E, F Acute 2 [104, 105] 28 18.3 (2.4) P, As P, PF
REO™ Therapy System S, E Acute 1 [106] 10 11.3 (0) P, As NC, P
ReoGo™ System S, E Chronic 1 [107] 19 15.0 (0) As, AA, PG, Ac NC
T-WREX S, E, W, H Chronic 2 [108, 109] 19 21.0 (4.2) As, Ac ACF
Pneu-WREX S, E, H Chronic 1 [110] 13 24.0 (0) As, AA, Ac ACF, NC
VRROOM, PHANTOM, WREX S, E Chronic 1 [111] 26 12.0 (0)   
UL-EX07 S, E, F, W Chronic 2 [112] 10 18.0 (0) PM, As PM, MA, SDG, ACF
BrightArm S, E, W, H Chronic 1 [113] 5 12.0 (0) As ACF, NC
Linear shoulder robot S Chronic 1 [114] 18 Unknown As, AA TA,ACF
L-Exos S, E, F Chronic 1 [115] 9 18.0 (0) As, PG MA, ACF
  1. Abbreviations:
  2. Upper extremity segment:
  3. • S = Shoulder
  4. • E = Elbow
  5. • F = Forearm
  6. • W = Wrist
  7. • H = Hand
  8. Human Robot Interactions (HRI):
  9. • P = Passive
  10. • PM = Passive-Mirrored
  11. • S = Spring against movement
  12. • MA = Moving attractor
  13. • TA = Triggered assistance
  14. • PF = Pushing force (in case of delay)
  15. • EMG = EMG-proportional
  16. • T = Tunnels
  17. • SDG = Spring-damper guidance
  18. • ACF = Assistive constant force
  19. • D = Damper against movement
  20. • NC = Not Clear