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Table 2 Effects of the interactive balance training on postural balance parameters

From: Interactive balance training integrating sensor-based visual feedback of movement performance: a pilot study in older adults

Parameters Control group Intervention group P valueb Effect sizec
Baseline n = 15 Post-test n = 15 % changea Baseline n = 15 Post-test n = 15 % changea
Eyes open
CoM sway, area, cm2 2.51 ± 1.86 2.62 ± 1.66 -4.4 3.03 ± 2.29 1.45 ± 1.01 52.2 .007 .239
CoM sway, ML, cm 1.86 ± 0.86 1.82 ± 0.56 2.2 2.07 ± 0.83 1.43 ± 0.38 30.9 .016 .196
CoM sway, AP, cm 1.22 ± 0.55 1.33 ± 0.48 -9.0 1.30 ± 0.68 0.93 ± 0.50 28.5 .015 .201
Hip sway, deg2 1.20 ± 0.93 1.32 ± 0.67 -10.0 1.50 ± 1.07 0.92 ± 0.65 38.7 .011 .214
Ankle sway, deg2 1.21 ± 0.94 1.37 ± 1.16 -13.2 1.12 ± 0.79 0.64 ± 0.35 42.9 .030 .162
RCI, AP 0.57 ± 0.22 0.60 ± 0.16 -5.3 0.57 ± 0.12 0.51 ± 0.08 10.5 .051 .134
RCI, ML 0.87 ± 0.05 0.90 ± 0.10 -3.5 0.88 ± 0.13 0.90 ± 0.07 -2.3 .888 .001
Eyes closed
CoM sway, area, cm2 5.74 ± 5.22 5.52 ± 6.97 3.8 5.72 ± 4.37 2.36 ± 2.25 58.7 .042 .144
CoM sway, ML, cm 2.53 ± 1.06 2.46 ± 1.39 2.8 2.80 ± 1.28 1.73 ± 0.70 38.2 .012 .214
CoM sway, AP, cm 1.93 ± 1.15 1.71 ± 1.16 11.4 1.76 ± 0.96 1.19 ± 0.71 32.4 .142 .078
Hip sway, deg2 2.30 ± 2.11 3.20 ± 5.00 -39.1 3.03 ± 2.37 1.12 ± 0.82 63.0 .010 .222
Ankle sway, deg2 2.69 ± 2.54 2.09 ± 1.86 22.3 2.40 ± 1.91 1.02 ± 0.89 57.5 .026 .170
RCI, AP 0.57 ± 0.14 0.58 ± 0.13 -1.8 0.56 ± 0.12 0.55 ± 0.14 1.8 .608 .010
RCI, ML 0.85 ± 0.09 0.88 ± 0.07 -3.5 0.91 ± 0.10 0.89 ± 0.08 2.2 .876 .001
  1. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation; apositive scores indicate improvement; bP-values from ANCOVA comparing the effect of the intervention on post-test outcome parameters adjusting for baseline values; cEffect size eta squared from ANCOVA; CoM, center of mass; ML, medial-lateral; AP, anterior-posterior; RCI, reciprocal compensatory index.