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Table 1 Stratified inventory of non-invasive control interfaces used for motion intention detection in active movement-assistive devices

From: Non-invasive control interfaces for intention detection in active movement-assistive devices

Human system Physiological phenomena Signal Sensor Transduction principle Interface with body Application Key reference
   Electric current EEG Electrode - Skin contact C/P/O/E [914]
    MEG MEG machine Induction No contact C/O [15, 16]
Controller Brain activity Hemodynamics fMRI MRI machine Induction No contact C/E [17, 18]
    NIRS Spectrometer Photoelectric Near-infrared illumination of the brain C/E [19, 20]
  Muscle activation Electric current EMG Electrode - Skin contact O/P/E [2124]
       Targeted muscle reinnervation* P [2527]
   Vibration MMG Microphone Induction Piezoelectric Skin contact P [2831]
     Accelerometer Piezoelectric Skin contact P [3032]
     Hall-effect sensor Induction Magnet on the skin P [33, 34]
    MK Pneumatic sensor Resistive Capacitive Skin contact P [35, 36]
Actuators Muscle contraction Dimensional change   Encoder Photoelectric Skin contact O [37]
    SMG Ultrasound scanner Piezoelectric Skin contact P [3840]
    Electric impedance Electrode - Electric current to skin P [41]
   Radial force and stiffness MT/MK Force-sensitive resistor Resistive Skin contact O/P [4244]
     Piezoelectric transducer Piezoelectric Skin contact O/P [45]
   Force Deformation Strain gauges Resistive Tunnel muscle cineplasty* P [46]
   Hemodynamics NIRS Spectrometer Photoelectric Near-infrared illumination of the muscle P [4750]
   Body segment movement Body segment movement IMU Piezoelectric Skin contact P/O [51, 52]
  Movement    Camera Photoelectric No contact E [53]
  Relative joint movement Joint rotations Goniometer Potentiometer Resistive Skin contact P/O [5457]
Plant     Bending sensor Resistive Skin contact P/O [58]
     Encoder Photoelectric Skin contact/No contact P/O [59]
  Force/Pressure Deformation Force/Torque sensor (strain gauges) Resistive No contact P/O/E [6062]
     Pressure sensor (force-sensitive resistor) Resistive Skin contact P/O/E [56, 6366]
  Eye movement Corneal reflection Video camera Photoelectric Near-infrared illumination of the cornea P/E [67]
    EOG Electrode - Skin contact P/E [68, 69]
    Accelerometer Piezoelectric Skin contact E [7072]
  Head movement Inclination Video camera Photoelectric No contact E [73]
Parallel systems     Ultrasonic sensor Piezoelectric Skin contact E [74]
  Tongue movement Contact with palate/Movement Induction coil Induction Ferromagnetic material at the tip of the tongue E/C [7577]
  Speech Sound Microphone Induction Piezoelectric No contact P/E [7880]
  Hand movement Angle Joystick (potentiometers) Resistive Skin contact O/E [8183]
  1. C: communication; P: prosthesis; O: orthosis; E: external devices; (*) indicates one-time invasive method.