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Table 1 Robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation

From: A survey on robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation

System name,references DOF Supported movements Main control inputs Actuators Type; field of application Stage of development; additional information
Systems assisting shoulder movements
Kiguchi [114] 2 Shoulder – FE, AA sEMG DC motors (x2) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); power assistance C0 study: 1 hs
Systems assisting elbow movements
Cheng [9] 1 Elbow – FE sEMG DC motor Stationary system; physical therapy CI study: 5 stroke + 5 hs
Cozens [10] 1 Elbow – FE Joint angle Electric servo-motor Stationary system; physical therapy CI study: 10 stroke + MS
Kiguchi [170] 1 Elbow – FE sEMG DC motor Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy C0 study: 2 hs
MARIONET, Sulzer [142] 1 Elbow – FE Joint angle AC servomotor (SEA) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy C0 study: 6 hs
Mavroidis [11] 1 Elbow – FE Force/torque DC motor Portable orthosis (continuous passive motion device); physical therapy Prototype
MEM-MRB, Oda [104] [1] [Elbow – flexion] Joint angular velocity, torque MRF brake Stationary system; physical therapy C0 study: 1 hs
Myomo e100, Myomo, Inc.; Stein [172] 1 Elbow – FE sEMG DC motor (x1) Portable orthosis; physical therapy Commercial system (FDA clearance); CI study: 8 cS
Ögce [171] 1 Elbow – FE sEMG DC step motor Wearable shoulder-elbow orthosis; physical therapy CI study: 2 traumatic brachial plexus injury
Pylatiuk [153] 1 Elbow – FE sEMG Hydraulic Wearable orthosis; physical therapy First prototype
Rosen [169] 1 Elbow – FE sEMG DC motor (x1) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); power assistance C0 study: 1 hs; predecessor of CADEN-7
Song [12] 1 Elbow – FE sEMG AC servo motor Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI studies: 8 cS [12], 7 cS [13], 3 cS [14]
Vanderniepen [143] 1 Elbow – FE Joint angle Electric motors (x2) (SEA) Wearable orthosis; orthopedic physical therapy Prototype
Systems assisting forearm movements
Kung [15] 1 Forearm – PS Joint angle, torque AC servomotor (1) Stationary system; physical therapy CI study: 7 cS + 8 hs [16]
Systems assisting wrist movements
ASSIST, Sasaki [146] 1 Wrist – flexion Joint angle Rotary-type pneumatic actuators (x2) Wearable orthosis; power assistance C0 study: 5 hs
Colombo [17] 1 Wrist – FE Torque Not specified Stationary system; physical therapy CII study: 20(8) cS
Hu [18] 1 Wrist – FE sEMG Electric motor Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI study: 15 cS
Loureiro [100] [1] [Wrist – FE] Hand motion (tremor) MRF brake Wearable orthosis; tremor suppression CI study: 1 ET
PolyJbot, Song [175] 1 Wrist – FE sEMG, joint angle and torque DC servomotor (x1) Stationary system; physical therapy CII study: 27(15) cS [19]
Systems assisting finger(s) movements
Amadeo, tyromotion GmbH 5 Fingers (each) – FE End-point position and force Electric motors Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy Commercial system; CI study: 7 aS [20]
Chen [21] 5 Independent linear movement of each finger Fingers positions and forces, sEMG DC linear motors (x5) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy C0 study: 1 hs
CyberGrasp, CyberGlove Systems LLC; Turner [22] [5] [Resistive force to each finger] Joint angles (CyberGlove) DC motors (x5) Force-feedback glove; interactions with virtual environment Commercial system for other applications, used in some clinical studies e.g. [191, 192]
Ertas [23] 1 Concurrent FE of 3 joints of a single finger Joint angles DC motor (x1) Finger exoskeleton (underactuated mechanism); tendon physical therapy C0 study: 4 hs
Fuxiang [24] 4 Index finger– FE (x3), AA Joint positions and toques Linear stepping motors Modular-finger exoskeleton (continuous passive motion device); physical therapy C0 study: 3 hs
Gloreha, Idrogenet srl 5 Independent passive movement of each finger Fingers positions Electric motors (x5) Portable (Gloreha Lite)/Movable (Gloreha Professional) (end-effector-based, cable-driven); physical therapy Commercial system (CE mark); CII study: 10(5) sS [25], CI studies: 9 stroke + 3 other diseases [26], 4 cS [27]
Hand of Hope, Rehab-Robotics Comp. Ltd., Ho [28] 5 Each finger separately - FE sEMG DC linear motors (x5) Portable system (orthosis); physical therapy Commercial system (CE Mark), CI study: 8 cS
HandCARE, Dovat [113] 5 Independent linear movement of each finger (1 at a time) Fingers positions and forces DC motor (x1!) Stationary system (end-effector-based, cable-driven); physical therapy CI study: 5 cS + 8 hs
HEXORR, Schabowsky [29] 2 Thumb – FE, other fingers together – FE Fingers positions and forces DC motor (x1), AC motor (x1) Stationary system (end-effector-based, cable-driven); physical therapy CI study: 5 cS + 9 hs
HIFE, Mali [183] 2 1 finger – FE End-point position DC motors Haptic interface (end-effector-based); physical therapy Prototype
InMotion HAND, previous name InMotion 5.0, Interactive Motion Tech., Inc.; Masia [165] 1 All fingers together – GR Not specified DC brushless motor Add-on module for InMotion ARM; physical therapy Commercial system
Kline [30] 1 All fingers together – extension Joint angles, sEMG Pneumatic Wearable glove; physical therapy CI study: 1 stroke + hs (np)
Lucas [147] 1 Index finger – flexion (passive extension) sEMG Pneumatic (x2) Wearable orthosis; grasp assistance CI study: 1 SCI
MR_CHIROD v.2, Khanicheh [158] [1] [All fingers together – GR] Finger position and torque ERF brake Exercising device (handle-like); physical therapy C0 study: hs (np); fMRI compatible
MRAGES, Winter [157] [5] [Fingers (each) – FE] Finger positions and torques MRF brakes (5) Force-feedback glove; physical therapy Prototype
Mulas [31] 2 Thumb – FE, other fingers together – FE sEMG, pulleys position DC servo motors (x2) Wearable orthosis; physical therapy CI study: 1 sS
Nathan [167] 1 All fingers together – grasp (passive release) Hand-held trigger, index and thumb fingers joint angles FES Wearable orthosis (glove); physical therapy CI study: 2 stroke + 1 hs
PowerGrip, Broaden Horizons, Inc. 1 Thumb, index and middle finger together – GR Switches or sEMG DC motor (1) Wearable orthosis; grasp assistance Commercial system
Reha-Digit, Reha-Stim; Hesse [32] 1 4 fingers (except the thumb) together – FE None DC motor Portable system (rotating handle); physical therapy Commercial system (CE mark); CII study: 8(4) sS, CI study: 1 cS
Rosati [144] 1 4 fingers (except the thumb) together – FE Not selected yet DC motor (SEA) Wearable orthosis; physical therapy Design
Rotella [33] 4 Index finger flexion (x2) (passive extension), thumb – flexion, other fingers together – flexion Not specified Electric motors Wearable orthosis; grasp assistance Design
Rutgers Master II-ND, Bouzit [184] 4 Thumb, index, middle, and ring finger – FE Actuator translation and inclination Pneumatic (x4) Force-feedback glove; interactions with virtual environment Research device; often used for hand therapy (e.g. [185187])
Salford Hand Exoskeleton, Sarakoglou [34] 7 Index, middle, and ring finger – FE (x2), thumb – FE Joint angles and end-point force DC motors Wearable orthosis (exoskeleton); physical therapy C0 study: hs (np)
Tong [35] 10 Each finger – FE (x2) sEMG Electric linear motors (x10) Portable system (wearable orthosis); physical therapy CI study: 2 cS
TU Berlin Finger Exoskeleton, Wege [36] 4 1 finger – FE (x3), AA Joint angles DC motors (x4) Finger exoskeleton; physical therapy C0 study: 1 hs
TU Berlin Hand Exoskeleton, Fleischer [117] 20 FE and AA of all major joints of each finger Joint angles, end-point force, sEMG DC motors Wearable orthosis (exoskeleton); physical therapy Prototype
Worsnopp [37] 3 Index finger – FE (x3) Joint angles and torques DC brushless servomotors (x6) Finger exoskeleton; physical therapy Prototype
Xing [38] 2 Thumb – FE, other fingers together – FE Position, force Pneumatic (PAMs) (x2) Wearable orthosis; physical therapy C0 study: 3 hs
Systems assisting shoulder and elbow movements
ACRE, Schoone [108] 5 Shoulder * elbow Joint angles Electrical motors (x5) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI: 10 sS
ACT3D, Ellis [39] 3 Shoulder * elbow End-point torque, position and velocity (HapticMaster) DC brushed motors (HapticMaster) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy and assessment of therapy results CI study: 6 stroke
ARC-MIME, Lum [137] 1+[2] Shoulder * elbow (longitudinal movements of the forearm) [forearm’s elevation and yaw] Forearm position and torque DC motor (x1), magnetic particle brakes (x2) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy An attempt to commercialize; CI study: 4 cS; merges concepts from MIME and ARM Guide
ARM Guide, Reinkensmeyer [136] 1+[2] Shoulder * elbow (longitudinal movements of the forearm) [forearm’s elevation and yaw] Forearm position and torque DC motor (x1), magnetic particle brakes (x2) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CII study: 19(10) cS [40]; see also: ARC-MIME
BFIAMT, Chang [41] 2 Shoulder * elbow (bilateral longitudinal movements of the forearms) End point position and torque DC servomotor (x2), magnetic particle brakes (x2) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI study: 20 cS [41]
BONES, Klein [118] 4 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE Joint angles, cylinder pressure Pneumatic (x5) Stationary system (parallel robot + exoskeleton-based distal part); physical therapy Prototype; see also: Supinator extender (SUE)
Dampace, Stienen [154] [4] [Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE] Joint angles and torques Hydraulic brake actuators (SEA) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy CI study: stroke (np); see also Limpact
Freeman [163] 2 Shoulder * elbow (in the plane) Handle torque and position DC brusheless servomotors (x2), FES Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy C0 study: 18 hs
InMotion ARM, previous name InMotion 2.0, Interactive Motion Tech., Inc.; based on: MIT Manus, Krebs [107] 2+[1] Shoulder * elbow (in the plane + gravity compensation) Joint positions, angular velocity and torque DC brushless motors Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy Commercial system, CIII/CIV studies: 127(49) cS [203], CII studies: 56(30) aS [42], 30(10) aS [43] and others
Ju [44] 2 Shoulder * elbow (in the plane) Handle torque and position AC motors (x2) Stationary system (end-effector-based; physical therapy CI study: stroke (np)
Kiguchi [45] 3 Shoulder – FE, AA, elbow – FE sEMG DC motors Wheelchair mounted system (exoskeleton-based); power assistance C0 study: hs (np); see also: shoulder, elbow and shoulder-elbow-forearm orthoses developed by Kiguchi and SUEFUL-7
Kobayashi [149] 4 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE Joint angle Pneumatic (PAMs) (x10) Wearable (but not portable) orthosis (”muscle suit“); power assistance C0 study: 5 hs
Limpact, Stienen [155] 4 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE Joint angles and torques Rotational hydroelastic actuator (SEA) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy Design; based on Dampace
MariBot, Rosati [46] 5 Shoulder * elbow Motor positions DC frameless brushless motors Stationary system (end-effector-based, cable-driven robot); physical therapy Prototype; successor of NeReBot
MEMOS, Micera [132] 2 Shoulder * elbow (in the plane) Torque and handle position DC motors (x2) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CII study: 20(12) cS [17], CI study: 18 cS [47]
MIME, Burgar [120] 6 Shoulder * elbow Forearm position, orientation, torque DC brushed servomotors (PUMA 560 robot) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CII studies: 27(13) cS [48] and 30(24) sS [49], CI study: 13 cS [50]; see also ARC-MIME
Moubarak [51] 4 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE Joint position, velocity and torques DC brushless motors (x4) Wheelchair-mounted system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy Prototype
NeReBot, Rosati [111] 3 Shoulder * elbow Motor positions DC motors (x3) Stationary system (end-effector-based, cable-driven robot); physical therapy CII studies: 24(12) sS [111], 35 (17) aS [52], 21(11) sS [53]; predecessor of MariBot
REHAROB, Toth [125] 12 Shoulder * elbow End-point torques Electrical motors (ABB IRB 140 and IRB 1400H robots) Stationary system (2 modified industrial robots); physical therapy CII study: 22 (13) stroke + 8(2) TBI [54], CI study: 6 cS + 2 sS + 4 hs [125]
Systems assisting forearm and wrist movements
Bi-Manu-Track, Reha-Stim; Hesse [55] 1 Forearm – PS * wrist – FE Not specified Not specified Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy Commercial system, CII study: 44 (22) sA [56], CI study: 12 cS [55]
CRAMER, Spencer [109] 3 Forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA Hand accelerations (Nintendo Wii console) Digital servomotors (x4) Stationary system (parallel robot); physical therapy Prototype
InMotion WRIST, previous name InMotion 3.0, Interactive Motion Tech., Inc.; Krebs [138] 3 Forearm – PS, wrist – FE * AA Joint angles DC brushless motors (x3) Stationary system, may be used as an add-on for InMotion ARM; physical therapy Commercial system
RiceWrist, Gupta [119] 4 Forearm – PS, wrist – FE * AA Joint angles and forces Frameless DC brushless motors Wearable orthosis; physical therapy Prototype; extension for MIME, see also: MAHI
Supinator extender (SUE), Allington [57] 2 Forearm – PS, wrist – FE Joint angles and forces Pneumatic Wearable orthosis; physical therapy CI study: 8 cS; extension for BONES and ArmeoSpring
Takaiwa [110] 3 Forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA Torque Pneumatic (x6) Stationary system (parallel robot); physical therapy Prototype
W-EXOS, Gopura [174] 3 Forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA sEMG, hand force, forearm torque DC motors (x3) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); power assistance C0 study: 2hs; see also: SUEFUL-7
Systems assisting wrist and fingers movements
AMES, Cordo [58] 1 wrist and MCP joints of 4 fingers (coupled together) Flexion/Extension torque, sEMG (optional) Electric motor + 2 vibrators (for flexor and extensor tendons) Stationary system (with desktop mounted orthosis), physical therapy (at home) FDA clearance; CI study: 20(11) cS; a modified version of the system is used for ankle rehabilitation
Hand Mentor™, Kinematic Muscles, Inc.; Koeneman [59] 1 Wrist and 4 fingers (except the thumb) extension Wrist angle, flexion torque Pneumatic (PAM) (x1) Wearable orthosis; physical therapy Commercial system (FDA Class I Device); CII study: 21(11) sS [60], CI studies: 1 cS [61], 1 cS [62]
HWARD, Takahashi [130] 3 Wrist – FE, thumb – FE, other fingers together – FE Joint angles and torques Pneumatic (x3) Stationary system (with desktop mounted orthosis); physical therapy CII study: 13(13) cS
My Scrivener, Obslap Reseach, LLC; Palsbo [190] 3 Wrist * fingers End-point position and torque (Novint Falcon) Electric motors (Novint Falcon) Stationary system (end-effector-based, using haptic device); fine motor hand therapy CI study: 18 children with weak handwriting skills
Systems assisting shoulder, elbow and forearm movements
ADLER, Johnson [63] 3+{3} Shoulder * elbow * forearm End-point torque, position and velocity (HapticMaster) DC brushed motors (HapticMaster) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy C0 study: 8 hs [64]
ARAMIS, Pignolo [65] 6x2 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS Joint angles and torques DC brushed motors (x6 per exoskeleton) Stationary system (2 exoskeletons); physical therapy CI study: 14 sS
Gentle/S, Amirabdollahian [121] 3+{3} Shoulder * elbow * forearm End-point torque, position and velocity (HapticMaster) DC brushed motors (HapticMaster) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CII study: 31(31) sS + cS [66]; predecessor of Gentle/G
iPAM, Culmer [67] 6 Shoulder * elbow * forearm Joint torques Pneumatic Stationary system (2 robotic arms); physical therapy CI study: 16 cS
Kiguchi [68] 4 Shoulder – FE, AA, elbow – FE, forearm – AA sEMG DC motors Wheelchair mounted system (exoskeleton-based); power assistance C0 study: 1 hs; see also: shoulder, elbow and shoulder-elbow orthoses developed by Kiguchi and SUEFUL-7
L-Exos, Frisoli [197] 4 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE {forearm – PS} Joint angles Electric motors (x4) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy CI study: 9 cS [69]
MGA, Carignan [70] 5 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, VD, elbow – FE, {forearm – PS} Joint torques DC brushless motors (x5) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy Prototype
MULOS, Johnson [168] 5 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS Joystick (4 DOF) Electric motors (x5) Wheelchair-mounted system (exoskeleton-based); power assistance and physical therapy C0 study: 1 hs
NJIT-RAVR, Fluet [71] 3+{3} Shoulder * elbow * forearm End-point torque, position and velocity (HapticMaster) DC brushed motors (HapticMaster) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy of children CI study: 8 CP
RehabExos, Vertechy [131] 4 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE {forearm – PS} Joint torques Custom-made frameless brushless motor (x3), DC motor (x1) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy First prototype
Systems assisting shoulder, elbow and fingers movements
Pneu-WREX, Wolbrecht [145] 4+{1} Shoulder – FE, AA, HD, elbow – FE, {fingers – GR} Joint angles, grasp force, cylinder pressure Pneumatic (x4) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy CI study: 11 cS [72]; see also: T-WREX and ArmeoSpring
T-WREX, Sanchez [106] {5} {Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, fingers – GR} Joint angles, grasp force None Wheelchair mounted gravity balancing orthosis; physical therapy CII studies: 23(11) cS [73], 28(14) cS [74], CI studies: 9cS + 5cS (2 studies) [75]; see also: Pneu-WREX and ArmeoSpring
Systems assisting elbow, forearm and wrist movements
Ding [179] 4 Elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA Joint angles (a Motion Capture System is used) Pneumatic (x8) Wearable (but not portable) orthosis; power assistance for explicitly specified muscles C0 study: 6 hs
MAHI, Gupta [76] 5 Elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE * AA Joint angles Frameless DC brushless motors Wearable orthosis (force-feedback exoskeleton); physical therapy Prototype; extension for MIME; see also: RiceWrist
WOTAS, Rocon [99] [3] [Elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE] Angular velocity, torques DC motors (x3) Wearable orthosis; tremor suppression CI study: 10 mainly ET
Systems assisting forearm, wrist and fingers movements
Haptic Knob, Lambercy [77] 2 Forearm – PS * wrist – FE, fingers – GR Position, torque DC brushed motors (x2) Stationary system (2 parallelograms); physical therapy CI study: 3 cS
Hasegawa [98] 11 Forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA, thumb – FE (x2), index finger – FE (x3), other fingers together –FE (x3) sEMG DC motors (x11) Wearable orthosis; grasp assistance C0 study: 1 hs
Kawasaki [178] 18 Forearm – PS, wrist – FE, thumb – FE (x3), AA, other fingers – FE (x2), AA Joint angles of healthy hand Servo motors (x22) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy C0 study: 1 hs
Scherer [156] [1] [Forearm and fingers twisting movements * wrist – FE] Position, torque Magnetic particle brake Stationary system (end-effector-based, rotating handle); physical therapy CI study: 2 stroke + 1 MS
Systems assisting shoulder, elbow, forearm and wrist movements
Braccio di Ferro, Casadio [134] 2 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist (in the horizonatal or vertical plane) Device joint angles, end-point force AC brushless servomotors (x2) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI studies: 10 cS + 4 hs [78], 7 MS + 9 hs [79], 11 MS + 11 hs [80], 8 MS [81]
CADEN-7, Perry [97] 2x7 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA sEMG, joint angles, angular velocities and forces/torques DC brushed motors (2x7) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based), 2 robotic arms; power assistance C0 study: 1 hs
Denève [82] 3 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist Device joint angles, end-point force AC brushless motors (x3) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy Prototype
EMUL, Furusho [159] 3 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist End-point position Electric motors + ERF clutches Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI study: 6 stroke; predecessor of PLEMO, see also: Robotherapist
ESTEC exoskeleton, Schiele [115] 9 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, VD, HD, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA Joint angles Not selected yet Wearable system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy First prototype
Furuhashi [83] 3 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist End-point torque DC motors (x3) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy Prototype
Hybrid-PLEMO, Kikuchi [135] 2 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist (in the adjustable plane) Device joint angles, end-point force DC servomotors (x2) + ERF clutches/brakes (x4) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy Prototype; based on PLEMO
Lam [180] 2 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist (in the plane) End-point position, abnormal trunk position detection Not specified Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy C0 study: 8 hs
Li [176] 5 Shoulder – FE, AA, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE sEMG signals from not affected arm AC (x3) and DC (x2) servo motors Wearable system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy Prototype
MACARM, Beer [112] 6 Shoulder * elbow * forearm * wrist End-point position and force Electric motors (x8) Stationary system (end-effector-based, cable-driven robot); physical therapy CI study: 5 cS
Mathai [84] 3 Shoulder * elbow * forearm * wrist End-point torque, position and velocity (HapticMaster) DC brushed motors (HapticMaster) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI study: 4 cS
MIME-RiceWrist, Gupta [119] 10 Shoulder * elbow * forearm * wrist See separate information for MIME and RiceWrist system See separate information for MIME and RiceWrist system Stationary system (robotic arm + orthosis); physical therapy CI study: stroke (np)
PLEMO, Kikuchi [105] [2] [Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist] (in the adjustable plane) Device joint angles, end-point force ERF brakes Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI study: 6 stroke + 27 hs [85]; successor of EMUL, predecessor of Hybrid-PLEMO
Robotherapist, Furusho [160] 6 Shoulder * elbow * forearm * wrist End-point position Electric motors + ERF clutches Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy Prototype; see also: EMUL
RUPERT IV, Balasubrama- nian [151] 5 Shoulder – AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE Joint torques and actuators pressure Pneumatic (PAMs) Wearable system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy CI study: 6 cS [86]
Salford Arm Rehabilitation Exoskeleton, Tsagarakis [148] 7 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA Joint positions and torques Linear pneumatic actuators (PAMs) (x14) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy Prototype
Sophia-3, Rosati [87] 2 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist (in the plane) End-point position and force AC motors Stationary system (end-effector-based, planar cable-driven robot); physical therapy First prototype; see also: Sophia-4
Sophia-4, Rosati [87] 2 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist (in the plane) End-point position and force DC motors Stationary system (end-effector-based, planar cable-driven robot); physical therapy Prototype; see also: Sophia-3
SUEFUL-7, Gopura [166] 7 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA sEMG/joint forces/torques DC servo motors (x7) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); power assistance C0 study: 2 hs; shoulder-elbow orthosis integrated with W-EXOS system
Takahashi [182] 2 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist (in the plane) End point position Electric servomotors (x2) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI study: 5 stroke + 2 Guillain-Bare syndrome
Tanaka [88] 2 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist (in the plane) End-point force and position AC linear motor (x2) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy C0 study: 6 hs
UHD, Oblak [139] 2 3 configurations possible: 1) shoulder * elbow, 2) forearm – PS, wrist – FE, 3) forearm – PS, wrist – AA Torque and handle position DC motors (x2), (SEA) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI study: 1 cS; reconfigurable robot
Umemura [152] 7 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA Actuators pressure Hydraulic Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy Prototype
UMH, Morales [127] 6 Shoulder * elbow * forearm * wrist Joint torques Pneumatic Stationary system (two robotic arms); physical therapy C0 study: hs (np)
Xiu-Feng [89] 2 Shoulder * elbow * (forearm) * wrist (in the plane) Device joint angles, end-point force AC servomotors (x2) Stationary system (end-effector-based); physical therapy CI study: 30 stroke
Systems assisting shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist and finger movements (whole arm)
ArmeoPower, Hocoma AG; based on: ARMin III, Nef [90] 6{+1} Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, {fingers – GR} Joint angles, grasp force DC motors (x6) Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy Commercial system; CI studies: 3 cS (ARMin I) [91], 4 cS (ARMin II) [92]
ArmeoSpring, Hocoma AG; based on: T-WREX, Sanchez [106] {7} {Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, fingers – GR} Joint angles, grasp force None Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy Commercial system (CE Mark, FDA clearance); CI study: 10 MS [93]; see also: T-WREX
ARMOR, Mayr [177] 8 Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, thumb – FE, other fingers together – FE Joint angles of the master hand Electric motor Stationary master-slave system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy CII study: 8(8) sS
Gentle/G, Loureiro [123] 6{+3} Shoulder * elbow (3 DOF, HapticMaster), {forearm – PS, wrist – FE, AA}, thumb – FE, other fingers together – FE (x2) (grasp robot) End-point torque, position and velocity (HapticMaster) joint angels and end-point force (grasp robot) DC brushed motors (HapticMaster and grasp robot) Stationary system (robotic arm + orthosis); physical therapy CII study: 4(4) sS [94]; based on Gentle/S
HEnRiE, Mihelj [124] 4{+2} Shoulder * elbow (3 DOF, HapticMaster), {wrist – FE, AA}, thumb, middle and index finger together – GR End-point torque, position and velocity (HapticMaster) joint angels and end-point force DC brushed motors (HapticMaster) electric motors (grasping device) Stationary system (robotic arm + orthosis); physical therapy Prototype (with spring instead of an actuator in the hand part); C0 study: 1 hs; based on Gentle/S
IntelliArm, Ren [116] 8{+2} Shoulder – FE, AA, RT, VD, {HD (x2)}, elbow – FE, forearm – PS, wrist – FE, all fingers together – GR Joint angles and torques Not specified Stationary system (exoskeleton-based); physical therapy CI study: stroke (np)
MUNDUS, Pedrocchi [101] [3]+{2}+1 [Shoulder – FE, AA, elbow – FE], optional: forearm – PS, wrist – FE (shoulder-elbow-wrist exoskeleton), optional: all fingers together – GR (hand orthosis) sEMG, button, eye-movement or Bran Computer Interface; object labels – radio frequency identification elastic elements or DC brakes (shoulder-elbow-wrist exoskeleton), FES (optional), DC motor (optional hand orthosis) Modular wheelchair-mounted system (exoskeleton-based); movement assistance CI study: 3 SCI + 2 MS
ReoGo, Motorica Medical Inc. 2+{1} Shoulder * elbow; also {* wrist} or {fingers - FE} if special handle used End-point position Electric motors (x4) Portable system (end-effector-based) with various handles; physical therapy Commercial system; CIII/CIV study: 60(np) sS [198], CI studies: 14 cS [95], 10 sS [96]
  1. All the systems in the following table are grouped according to the joint movement they support. For the sake of convenience, we consider the shoulder complex, the forearm and the hand (fingers) as single joints. Thus, we distinguish the following “joints”: shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist and fingers. Devices assisting movements of only one “joint” (starting from shoulder and ending with fingers) are described first followed by devices assisting movement of two, three and four joints (in that order). The end of the table presents systems assisting movement of the whole arm.
  2. For some systems it was difficult to classify them into a particular group. One of such cases includes the end-effector-based systems with a splint. A specific classification to particular group may depend on the joints constrained in particular case by the splint. Furthermore, some devices allow for movements in some joints only in a limited range.
  3. In some cases the same system may appear multiple times in the table on various stages of development. We have accepted such occurrences only if, in our opinion, the difference between two versions of the system justified considering them as two various systems. Otherwise, information included in the table includes only the most recent version of the system available at the time of this publication.
  4. System names are provided in italics. Whenever possible, the first column of the table provides the system name and reference (including the name of the first author) to the publication in which the system is described. We only provide the appropriate reference for systems without a name. The names of commercial systems are followed by their producer names. Appropriate information is provided following a semicolon for commercial systems based on systems being described in scientific publication before commercialization. Except one case, i.e. ArmeoSpring based on T-WREX system, the description of the predecessors is not provided elsewhere in the table because we found no significant differences between the predecessors and their commercial versions.
  5. The last column contains information about the current stage of system development, clinical trials performed using the system and some additional information are provided. If the system has undergone clinical evaluation, information about the category of the trial, number of participants enrolled and their condition, as well as reference to the paper presenting results of the study is also provided. We distinguish four categories of the studies marked as C0, CI, CII, CIII/CIV. For a description, see Table 7. Categories CII and CIII/CIV provide two numbers of subjects. The first number indicates the total number of participants enrolled in the study. The number in parenthesis indicates number of participants undergoing therapy using the particular system. We made this distinction because there is often a control group undergoing other form of therapy in the CII and CIII/CIV studies. If both numbers are equal, all participants underwent therapy using the specified system but other parameter of the study varied between the groups (e.g. training intensity, device control strategy, or order in which various forms of therapy were applied). No reference after the number and condition of participants indicates that the reference is the same as the one provided in the first column. Information about predecessors or successors is also provided, if available. We use the following symbols and abbreviations: - for degrees of freedom of the device (DOF) and supported movements (second and third column of the table respectively): [ ] - indicates passive (i.e. exerting only resistive force) and { } - indicates not-actuated degrees of freedom or movements, otherwise active. - for supported movements (third column): (joint name) - indicates that range of movements for that joint is limited to a very small range, AA – adduction/abduction, FE – flexion/extension, GR – grasp and release, PS – pronation/supination, RT – internal/external rotation, HD - horizonatal displacement, VD - vertical displacement (both in the shoulder girdle), MCP – metacarpophalangeal joint, * - indicates that the direction of the movement of the device does not correspond to the direction of any of basic anatomical movements (e.g. pronation/supination, flexion/extension, rotation) but is a combination of many, (x number) - indicates that a few particular movements are possible (e.g. flexion in a few joints of one finger), (in the plane) - indicates that the end effector of the device moves only in a specified plane; for the explanation of anatomical terms of motion see Figure 2. - for main control inputs and actuators (fourth and fifth column respectively): (commercial system name) - indicates that the particular commercial device (usually robot or haptic interface) is incorporated in the described system and that the particular sensors or actuators are part of that commercial system. - for main control (forth column): sEMG - surface electromyography. - for actuators (fifth column): AC - alternating current, DC - direct current, ERF - electrorheological fluid based, FES - functional electrical stimulation, MRF - magnetorheological fluid based, PAM - pneumatic artificial muscle, SEA - series elastic actuator, (x number) - number of particular actuators being used (provided only if such an information was available). - for clinical studies (last column): C0, CI, CII, CIII/CIV - category of the study: 0, I, II and III/IV, respectively (for category descriptions see the subsection Clinical studies of the survey); subject condition: aS - acute stroke, CP - cerebral palsy, cS - chronic stroke, ET - essential tremor, hs - healthy subject(s), MS - multiple sclerosis, SCI - spinal cord injury, sS - subacute stroke, TBI - traumatic brain injury; np - number of subjects is not provided.