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Table 3 Summary of participant characteristics, study design and exergaming interventions

From: The role of exergaming in Parkinson’s disease rehabilitation: a systematic review of the evidence

Author Participants PD diagnosis Design and aim System Games Intervention Setting
Assad et al. [[25]] 13 PD (Aged 54-86 years) 9 males and 5 females Mean duration of PD = 9 yr Participatory design Sony Playstation Eye™ 5 Upper body movement games. 1 session Duration NS Clinic
Assess PD subjects’ perception of playing an exergame developed for PD.
Zettergren et al. [[22]] 1 male (69 years old) PD duration <3 yr Single subject case study Nintendo Wii™ Penguin slide, Table tilt, Balance bubble, Free step, Island cycling, Obstacle course and Rhythm parade. 2 sessions/week 8 weeks 40-60 minutes per session Clinic
Evaluate the effects of multiple Nintendo Wii Fit activities on gait, balance and mobility.
Pompeu et al. [[21]] 32 PD (Aged 60-85 years) HY I & II Single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) Nintendo Wii™ Balance games: (Table tilt, Tilt city, Penguin slide, Soccer heading) Static balance (Torso twist and Single leg extension). 2 sessions/week 7 weeks 60 minutes per session Clinic
Stationary gait: (Rhythm parade, Obstacle Course, Basic Step and Basic Run)
Test if PD patients improve their performance on the Wii & compare the effects of Wii exercise on motor and cognitive training with balance therapy.
Mendes et al. [[20]] 16 PD (No mean age data) 11 Healthy elderly HY I = 2; HY II = 14 Longitudinal controlled trial Nintendo Wii™ Table tilt, Tilt city, Penguin slide, Soccer heading, Obstacle course, Rhythm parade, Basic run plus, Basic step, Single leg extensions games. 2 sessions/week 7 weeks 60 minutes per session Clinic
To evaluate the learning, retention and transfer of performance after using the Wii.
Esculier et al. [[19]] 10 PD (61.9 ± 11.0) Mean duration of PD = 8.5 (3.6) years Longitudinal controlled trial Nintendo Wii™ Wii sports: Table tilt, Ski slalom, Balance bubble, Ski jump and Penguin slide. 3 × 6 weeks 40 minutes each session Home
8 Healthy elderly (63.5 ± 12.0) To evaluate whether PD subjects balance and functional activities improved using the Wii Compare the effects against a healthy elderly sample.
Mhatre et al. [[23]] 10 PD (Aged 44-91 years) 6 female and 4 males Mean Duration of PD = 6.7 years Prospective interventional cohort study Nintendo Wii™ Balance board games: Marble game, Skiing, and bubble game. 3 sessions/week 8 weeks 30 minutes each session Clinic
Assess the effectiveness of using the Wii Fit on people with PD for gait and balance training.
Hertz et al. [[24]] 20 PD (66.7 ± 7.2) 13 male and 7 female Mean Duration of PD = 5.5 (4.3) years Pre-post design trial Nintendo Wii™ Tennis, boxing and bowling 3 sessions/week 4 weeks 60 minutes each session Clinic
    Assess the effectiveness of Wi on both motor and non–motor symptoms of PD.     
  1. HY = Hoehn and Yahr stage.