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Table 1 Characteristics, physical activity, sedentary time and self-reported physical activity

From: Inactive and sedentary lifestyles amongst ambulatory adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

  CP Able-bodied4     GMFCS level7 CP distribution8
Characteristics    Mean dif.5 p6 95% CI I II III Unilateral Bilateral
  Number of participants 48 32     29 15 4 27 21
  Age, mean (SD) 20 (3) 22 (5)   0.1   19 (2) 21 (3) 19 (2) 19 (2) 21 (3)
  Gender, number of  males/females 23/25 18/14   0.5   13/16 8/7 2/2 11/16 12/9
Physical activity mean (SD)           
% Physical activities1 8.6 (3.0) 12.0 (3.9) -3.4 <0.01* -5.2 – -2.1 9.2 (3.2) 8.3 (2.4) 5.1 (1.0) 8.8 (2.9) 8.2 (3.2)
 % Walking 4.3 (2.3) 8.5 (3.5) -4.2 <0.01* -5.6 – -3.0 4.9 (2.3) 4.0 (2.0) 1.5 (1.4) 4.7 (2.2) 3.8 (2.5)
 % Running 0 (0.1) 0.1 (0.5) -0.08 0.18 -0.3 – 0.1 0 (0.1) 0 (0) 0.1 (0.1) 0 (0.1) 0 (0.1)
 % Cycling 1.1 (1.2) 1.4 (1.8) -0.3 0.10 -1.2 – 0.1 1.2 (1.2) 0.9 (1.1) 0.9 (1.4) 1.2 (1.2) 0.9 (1.1)
 % Non-cyclic movement 3.2 (1.7) 1.8 (1.1) 1.4 <0.01* 0.7 – 2.1 3.2 (1.7) 3.4 (1.9) 2.6 (1.7) 2.9 (1.6) 3.5 (1.9)
Motility physical activities (g)2 43.9 (8.1)      45.5 (5.5) 41.9 (11.0) 40.3 (10.2) 45.8 (5.7) 41.5 (9.9)
Motility walking (g)2 52.6 (8.9)      52.9 (6.9) 52.1 (9.5) 52.3 (16.3) 53.8 (7.5) 50.9 (9.9)
 0-10 sec walking bouts 124.6 (45.4)      137.0 (41.1) 117.0 (41.9) 63.6 (40.1) 132.0 (39.9) 115.2 (51.0)
 10-60 sec walking bouts 88.8 (48.3)      100.8 (50.1) 79.5 (37.5) 36.2 (32.8) 96.1 (45.2) 79.4 (51.6)
 1-10 min walking bouts 7.1 (6.0)      7.7 (5.8) 7.7 (6.3) 0.8 (1.5) 7.5 (4.9) 6.6 (7.2)
 10-30 min walking bouts 0.1 (0.3)      0.1 (0.3) 0.1 (0.3) 0 0.1 (0.3) 0.02 (0.1)
 >30 min walking bouts 0      0 0 0 0 0
Sedentary time mean (SD)           
% Sedentary time  (sitting + lying)3 79.5 (7.1) 74.0 (7.5) 5.5 <0.01* 1.6 – 8.3 77.9 (7.0) 80.6 (5.8) 87.4 (7.6) 78.7 (6.8) 80.6 (7.5)
% Sitting 36.8 (8.1) 36.7 (7.0) 0.1 0.79 -3.1 – 4.1 36.6 (7.6) 35.7 (8.8) 42.3 (8.0) 36.9 (8.6) 36.7 (7.5)
 0-10 sec sitting bouts 18.0 (12.2)      15.6 (7.8) 22.0 (17.4) 19.8 (15.2) 14.8 (7.4) 22.0 (15.8)
 10-60 sec sitting bouts 34.7 (19.3)      31.7 (14.7) 38.5 (22.8) 41.7 (33.9) 29.6 (15.0) 41.2 (22.7)
 1-10 min sitting bouts 40.2 (19.2)      39.7 (18.2) 40.0 (18.2) 44.5 (33.6) 38.1 (18.3) 42.9 (20.4)
 10-30 min sitting bouts 11.4 (3.3)      11.8 (3.0) 10.9 (3.3) 10.4 (6.0) 11.8 (3.2) 10.9 (3.5)
 >30 min sitting bouts 3.5 (1.9)      3.3 (1.9) 3.3 (1.5) 5.0 (3.0) 3.5 (2.0) 3.4 (1.9)
% Standing 11.9 (5.4) 13.2 (5.3) -1.3 0.54 -3.2 – 1.7 12.9 (5.3) 11.1 (4.9) 7.6 (6.7) 12.5 (5.5) 11.2 (5.4)
Self-reported physical activity           
PASIPD (MET-hr/day), mean (SD) 13.0 (8.6)      15.3 (9.5) 9.8 (6.0) 7.8 (2.4) 14.6 (8.5) 10.9 (8.5)
  1. 1Physical activities is total duration of walking, running, cycling, and non-cyclic movement, as a % of 24 hours.
  2. 2g = gravitational forces*100.
  3. 3Sedentary time is total duration of lying and sitting, as % of 24 hours.
  4. 4Note that data on motility, bouts and self-reported physical activity were not available for able-bodied controls.
  5. 5Mean difference between all participants with CP and able-bodied persons.
  6. 6Difference in characteristics between all persons with CP and able-bodied persons was tested. Difference in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed with regression analyses correcting for age and gender.
  7. 7Corrected for age and gender, no significant differences were found in physical behaviour between participants with GMFCS level I and II (p > 0.05). Differences with the subgroup GMFCS level III were not assessed because sample size was limited.
  8. 8Corrected for age and gender, participants with bilateral CP had significantly higher number of sitting bouts 0–10 sec (p = 0.04) and 10–60 sec (p = 0.02) compared to unilateral CP. No other significant differences were found in physical behaviour between participants with bilateral and unilateral CP (p > 0.05).
  9. *indicates significant difference p < 0.05.
  10. GMFCS = Gross Motor Functioning Classification System.
  11. PASIPD = Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities.
  12. CI = confidence interval.
  13. Mean dif. = mean difference.