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Figure 2 | Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation

Figure 2

From: Control strategies for active lower extremity prosthetics and orthotics: a review

Figure 2

Nominal sensory-motor control loop for human locomotion. Motion intentions originate from supraspinal input, which along with afferent feedback serves to modulate basic underlying locomotor patterns within a network of spinal interneurons, commonly referred to as the central pattern generator (CPG). Efferent stimulation is transmitted through motor neurons to individual muscle groups, which are recruited to effect the movement. Afferent feedback, including that from proprioceptors of the muscles and joints and mechanoreceptors of the skin, is used to directly modulate motor commands via mono- and polysynaptic reflex arcs, thus contributing to the efficiency of gait under normal conditions and stability of gait in the face of unexpected perturbations. Sensory information is also transmitted to the brain, where it is combined with higher level inputs from the visual, auditory, and vestibular systems to provide information required for the maintenance of balance, orientation and control of precise movements.

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