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Table 2 Normalized RMS SEMG amplitudes, kinematics, and differences

From: Age and gender related neuromuscular changes in trunk flexion-extension

  <40 (n:24) >60 (n:25) Men (n:24) Women (n:25) Age Gender Age x gender
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD RSS p-value   RSS p-value   RSS p-value  
RMS SEMG amplitude (in percent):
standing/80% MVC 29.62 24.38 36.24 22.96 34.30 22.22 31.75 25.36 127.7 0.4296 ns 446.6 0.2444 ns 688.3 0.2776 ns
half/80% MVC 61.10 38.47 53.41 24.94 62.39 27.75 52.17 35.77 1151.1 0.2078 ns 1836.2 0.1747 ns 2983.5 0.0669 ns
max flexion/80% MVC 35.73 35.79 50.35 29.84 47.26 37.58 39.28 29.00 1560.8 0.1851 ns 1640.1 0.0985 ns 5656.1 0.0140 *
Relative EMG changes (in percent):
standing - half 31.48 22.70 17.16 17.60 28.08 15.66 20.42 25.37 2045.6 0.0166 * 471.7 0.3136 ns 805.3 0.1506 ns
standing - max flexion 06.11 23.37 14.10 17.97 12.96 22.34 07.53 19.63 795.68 0.1460 ns 370.3 0.3004 ns 2398.3 0.0168 *
half - max flexion 25.37 29.03 03.06 09.99 15.13 20.05 12.90 27.81 5392.8 0.0002 * 6.1 0.8431 ns 424.1 0.4013 ns
Half Flexion Relaxation Ratio (HFR)†:
half/max flexion 02.85 01.98 01.18 00.30 02.41 02.06 01.60 00.93 32.9 <0.001 * 7.3 0.0279 * 13.1 0.0020 *
Range of Motion (in degrees):
hip (standing - max flexion) 54.89 09.93 59.99 13.98 53.69 13.04 61.15 10.58 278.6 0.1560 ns 627.5 0.0358 * 399.8 0.0908 ns
lumbar (standing - max flexion) 55.11 08.83 39.55 10.92 46.07 15.37 48.23 09.42 3145.9 <0.001 * 43.0 0.5341 ns 613.3 0.0140 *
gross trunk (standing - max flexion) 110.01 10.76 99.54 21.85 99.76 21.13 109.38 13.00 1552.0 0.0066 * 999.2 0.0298 * 2003.4 0.0106 *
hip (standing - half) 27.27 08.89 30.34 08.28 27.70 08.71 29.91 08.61 113.5 0.2983 ns 58.8 0.6604 ns 2.1 0.9412 ns
lumbar (standing - half) 25.33 14.87 25.12 10.43 24.68 11.49 25.77 14.04 0.5 0.9412 ns 14.3 0.8235 ns 434.9 0.1938 ns
gross trunk (standing - half) 52.59 11.95 55.46 12.79 52.37 11.40 55.68 13.23 98.3 0.8431 ns 131.0 0.4737 ns 498.1 0.3875 ns
% hip of gross trunk (standing - max flexion) 54.80 22.92 55.50 12.34 54.16 17.11 56.14 19.57 5.8 0.8824 ns 47.1 0.9216 ns 450.1 0.2903 ns
% lumbar of gross trunk (standing - max flexion) 45.20 22.92 44.50 12.34 45.84 17.11 43.86 19.57 5.8 0.7843 ns 47.1 0.6154 ns 450.1 0.5333 ns
  1. *p < 0.05, ns = non significant, RSS = residual sum of squares.
  2. † Note: In order to keep the data presentation in a uniform manner we provide only the means and SD for all outcome variables. In some cases the normality assumption is violated where frequency distributions are skewed.