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Table 2 Summary of the changes in vertical component of the ground reaction forces (vGRF) in the eight anatomical regions of the feet during linear and curved trajectories

From: The generation of centripetal force when walking in a circle: insight from the distribution of ground reaction forces recorded by plantar insoles

Region vGRF (N) vGRF %BW
Linear Foot-in Foot-out Linear Foot-in Foot-out
Hallux 230.5in 176.6a 229.9 40.5in 31.0a 40.4
  7.6 7.1 9.0 1.2 1.2 1.5
Lateral Toes 125.1in 98.4 114.4 22.2in 17.4 20.2
  6.6 6.1 6.6 1.2 1.1 1.2
I Metatarsal Head 158.5 133.9a 161.6 27.8 23.3a 28.5
  9.2 7.9 9.4 1.6 1.3 1.7
II-V Metatarsal Heads 279.9out 285.6a 252.7 48.2out 49.5a 43.4
  12.1 11.0 12.4 1.4 1.4 1.6
Medial Arch 18.0 24.1 18.3 3.1 4.2 3.2
  2.5 3.6 2.7 0.4 0.7 0.5
Lateral Arch 89.3 109.1 102.2 15.7 19.0 18.0
  6.6 6.5 6.8 1.2 1.0 1.2
Medial Heel 239.5out 230.8a 177.5 42.0out 40.6a 31.1
  9.0 7.7 7.6 1.4 1.3 1.1
Lateral Heel 363.2in 298.9a 345.3 63.2in 51.8a 60.1
  11.6 11.0 11.9 1.3 1.2 1.6
  1. Average values (± SE) from left and right feet. Foot-In and Foot-Out correspond respectively to the inner outer foot during curved walking. vGRF is represented as absolute values, normalized to body weight (%BW).
  2. out, denotes a significant difference between linear foot and foot-Out (p<0.05). in, denotes a significant difference between linear foot and foot-In (p<0.05). a, denotes a significant difference between Foot-In and Foot-Out (p<0.05).