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Table 1 Mean Time to Onset (msec) of Acceleration and of Muscle EMG From the Firing of the Solenoid of the Pneumatic Piston

From: Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of head rotation on the cervical muscle whiplash response

     Muscle
     Sternocleidomastoid Splenius Capitis Trapezius
Acceleration (m/s2) Sled Shoulder Head Left Right Left Right Left Right
Right Head Rotation          
4.0 44 (19) 65 (32) 85 (17) 199 (116) 224 (136) 125 (45) 104 (52) 105 (44) 108 (48)
7.6 34 (10) 52 (18) 61 (21) 177 (81) 197 (143) 109 (33) 97 (40) 104 (42) 96 (46)
10.7 30 (11) 42 (14) 55 (21) 170 (49) 141 (109) 104 (42) 96 (47) 97 (33) 92 (41)
13.0 26 (11) 35 (15) 52 (21) 132 (60) 125 (63) 91 (22) 93 (36) 89 (30) 90 (28)
Left Head Rotation          
4.0 48 (21) 64 (26) 97 (22) 185 (61) 222 (50) 114 (43) 196 (105) 137 (35) 180 (55)
7.6 31 (15) 49 (22) 71 (25) 99 (45) 194 (45) 98 (37) 172 (78) 106 (45) 114 (44)
10.7 29 (14) 43 (12) 65 (22) 86 (47) 181 (77) 94 (35) 163 (107) 98 (41) 110 (48)
13.0 27 (11) 42 (19) 64 (19) 79 (48) 180 (70) 85 (27) 138 (48) 78 (29) 101 (36)
  1. Times for the sled, shoulder, and head represent the time at which acceleration in z-axis (direction of travel) began. Times for the cervical muscles represent the time to onset for EMG activity. Values in parentheses represent one standard deviation.