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Table 3 Mean Force Equivalents (Newtons, N) and Mean Head Accelerations at Time of Maximal EMG in Direction of Travel for Right Anterolateral Impact.

From: Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of head rotation on the cervical muscle whiplash response

  Force Equivalents for Muscle (N)
   Sternocleidomastoid Splenius Capitis Trapezius
Sled Acceleration (m/s2) Head Acceleration (m/s2) Left Right Left Right Left Right
Right Head Rotation        
4.0 3.6 (0.8) 9 (4) 3 (2) 19 (7) 19 (8) 11 (4) 18 (6)
7.6 6.1 (1.0) 10 (5) 5 (2) 21 (14) 22 (10) 18 (7) 21 (10)
10.7 8.0 (1.1) 11 (6) 6 (2) 23 (10) 26 (9) 21 (5) 27 (11)
13.0 9.7 (1.4) 12 (7) 7 (5) 26 (10) 18 (16) 23 (9) 28 (11)
Left Head Rotation        
4.0 4.3 (0.7) 4 (2) 7 (5) 19 (13) 11 (6) 17 (6) 10 (4)
7.6 7.7 (1.3) 4 (3) 10 (6) 29 (13) 12 (8) 22 (7) 11 (6)
10.7 10.0 (1.3) 5 (4) 11 (8) 33 (19) 17 (7) 29 (10) 12 (6)
13.0 11.7 (1.8) 6 (5) 13 (7) 34 (17) 19 (8) 35 (14) 13 (6)
  1. Values in parentheses represent one standard deviation.