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Table 3 F test and P-value of ANCOVA with a repeated measures (n = 98) design comparing coefficient of variation of stride time while walking at self-selected speed with and without backward counting, adjusted for walking speed (covariate) and subject effect (n = 49).

From: Stride-to-stride variability while backward counting among healthy young adults

Source of variation Sum of square df|| Mean square F P-value
Backward counting* 0.060 1 0.0601 0.97 0.330 †
Subjects‡ 12.751 48 0.2656 4.28 0.000
Log (Stride velocity) § 0.464 1 0.4636 7.47 0.009
Residual 2.915 47 0.0620   
Total 17.201 97 0.1773   
  1. *: Backward counting coded as a binary variable (0 = walking alone, 1 = walking with backward counting), †: Box conservative estimate, ‡: Variability between subjects §: Normalized by taking the logarithmic transformation, ||: Degree of freedom