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Table 2 Kinematic variables for the control subjects (n = 20).

From: Three-dimensional kinematic motion analysis of a daily activity drinking from a glass: a pilot study

Kinematic variables Mean SD 95% CI
Movement times (s)    
Reaching 1.21 0.22 1.11–1.31
Forward transport 1.15 0.19 1.06–1.24
Drinking 1.71 0.44 1.51–1.92
Back transport 1.77 0.37 1.60–1.94
Returning 1.00 0.14 0.94–1.07
Total movement time 6.84 1.00 6.38–7.32
Peak velocity (PV) (mm/s)    
PV for reaching 551 78.3 514–587
PV for forward transport 273 50.4 249–296
PV for back transport 228 66.8 196–259
PV for returning 560 79.1 523–597
Time to PV in reaching (s) 0.41 0.10 0.37–0.46
Time to PV in reaching (%) 34.3 5.7 31.7–37.0
Joint angles (°)    
Shoulder (sagittal plane)    
Initial position 5.5 2.7 4.2–6.8
Grasping (maximal flexion) 48.9 5.1 46.5–51.2
Drinking (maximal flexion) 53.5 7.0 50.2–56.8
Range 48.3 7.5 44.8–51.8
Shoulder (frontal plane)    
Initial position 15.0 4.0 13.1–16.9
Reaching (abduction) 27.8 6.0 25.0–30.7
Grasping (maximal adduction) 10.6 4.6 8.5–12.8
Drinking (maximal abduction) 39.3 13.0 33.2–45.4
Range 28.7 10.5 23.8–33.6
Elbow    
Initial position 105.0 6.8 101.8–108.2
Grasping (maximal extension) 42.5 7.3 39.1–45.9
Drinking (maximal flexion) 136.4 3.8 134.6–138.1
Range 93.9 8.1 90.1–97.7
  1. Abbreviations: SD – standard deviation, CI – confidence interval