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Table 1 Angle measurement precision evaluated by different indicators based on absolute (mean and standard deviation – SD), root mean square (RMS) and maximum (max.) errors.

From: An instrumented cylinder measuring pinch force and orientation

Theoretical
Angle Tested 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 -20.00 -40.00 -60.00 -80.00
Empirical Angles
Mean* (N) 80.47 59.48 40.14 20.13 -0.25 -20.237 -40.05 -60.00 -79.66
Mean SD (N) 0.91 1.55 1.54 1.04 1.15 1.255 0.95 0.84 0.96
Mean Error** (N) 0.49 0.64 0.56 0.32 0.54 0.654 0.42 0.31 0.38
SD Error (N) 0.38 0.43 0.48 0.41 0.54 0.699 0.31 0.20 0.16
RMS Error (N) 0.61 0.75 0.72 0.50 0.74 0.928 0.51 0.37 0.41
Max Error (N) 1.25 1.21 1.52 1.30 1.87 2.130 1.02 0.72 0.66
  1. * Corrected for systematic offset of -1.51°.
  2. ** Relative to the corrected empirical mean