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Table 1 Exclusion Criteria (by self-report)

From: A new measurement method for spine reposition sense

Oswestry back pain scores of greater than or equal to 5%

Balance, coordination, or stabilization therapy within the last six months

Excessive use of pain medication, drugs, or alcohol

Ligamentous injury to the hips, pelvis, or spine

Spinal surgery

Balance disorders secondary to: active or recent ear infections, vestibular disorders, trauma to the vestibular canals, or orthostatic hypotension

Neurologic disorders including: multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebral vascular accident (CVA), spinal cord injury, neuropathies, and myopathies

Diseases of the spine including: osteoporosis, instability, fractures, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), degenerative disc disease (DDD), and spondylolisthesis