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Table 3 Results on timed clinical performance tests, the Berg balance scale, and FES (S), n = 10

From: The effects of high frequency subthalamic stimulation on balance performance and fear of falling in patients with Parkinson's disease

  Admission day With anti-PD medication   Without anti-PD medication Comparison between DBS OFF and ON
  DBS ON DBS OFF DBS ON Median difference p-value
  Md (q1–q3) range Md (q1–q3) range Md (q1–q3) range Md (q1–q3) range  
Timed tests      
10 m walk test, gaitspeed (m/s) 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 1.0–1.7 0.91 (0.74–1.3) 0.38–1.4 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 0.71–1.4 0.30 (0.00–0.49) -0.06–0.73 0.016 (2 ties)
Chair-stand test (s) 15.0 (12.5–17.5) 10.0–23.0 18.5 (16.3–22.5)1 13.0–24.0 14.5 (12.0–18.8)1 12.0–21.0 3.5 (3.0–5.0) 1.0–6.0 0.0081
Timed Up & Go (s) 10.0 (8.5–11.0) 7.0–12.0 11.0 (11.0–18.5)2 8.0–29.0 9.0 (8.5–11.0)2 7.0–17.0 3.0 (1.5–8.5) 0.00–12.0 0.0082 (1 tie)
One leg stance (s) 20.5 (7.3–56.3) 2.0–60.0 11.0 (7.8–15.0) 3.0–29.0 25.5 (14.8–36.5) 3.0–47.0 11.5 (6.3–17.5) -7.0–39.0 0.006
Sharpened Romberg (s) (eyes open) 32.5 (17.0–60.0) 5.0–60.0 14.0 (6.5–27.8) 2.0–60.0 26.5 (17.0–55.5) 5.0–60.0 11.5 (-3.3–32.0) -9.0–55.0 0.051
Sharpened Romberg (s) (eyes closed) 8.0 (5.8–19.3) 2.0–32.0 4.5 (2.0–12.5) 1.0–25.0 3.0 (3.0–8.5) 2.0–14.0 1.0 (-6.3–2.3) -22.0–4.0 > 0.3
BBS 49.5 (43.8–51.5) 40.0–54.0 42.0 (34.5–48.0) 27.0–50.0 50.0 (46.8–52.0) 41.0–52.0 6.0 (2.8–12.5) 1.0–21.0 0.002
FES (S) Total score   52.5 (31.5–65.0) 3.0–95.0 111.0 (84.5–127.3) 52.0–130.0 53.5 (30.3–75.5) 21.0–100.0 0.002
  1. Values are given as median (Md), first and third quartiles (q1–q3) and range. P values: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) ON as compared with DBS turned off (DBS OFF) when tested without anti-PD medication (withdrawal of all anti-parkinsonian drugs for 10–12 hours). Results are rounded as one decimal or two meaningful digits (maximum of two decimals are given).
  2. m/s = meters per second, s = seconds.
  3. BBS: The Berg Balance Scale, best possible score is 56 points [3032].
  4. FES (S): Falls -Efficacy Scale, Swedish version. Best possible total score is 130 points [38].
  5. 1 (n = 8). Two patients were unable to perform the Chair-stand Test with DBS OFF, but managed with DBS ON (21 s, and 17 s).
  6. 2 (n = 9). One patient was unable to perform TUG unaided with DBS OFF, but managed with DBS ON (11 s). With DBS ON, four patients had decreased results on some of the timed performance tests. All of these four patients maintained the position of sharpened Romberg with eyes closed for a shorter time period (range 3–22 s), and three out of the four did so also when tested with eyes open (range 2–9 s). One of the patients did in addition also have a slower gait speed (0.06 m/s), whereas another patient performed the One leg stance for a shorter time period (7 s). Three out these four patients had been randomized to start the assessments with DBS OFF.
  7. One leg stance and sharpened Romberg (SR) had an upper time limit of 60 seconds. When tested without anti-PD medication, the upper time limit was reached only on the SR with eyes open (EO): one patient with DBS OFF and two patients with DBS ON. With anti-PD medication (on admission day), the upper time limit was reached by four patients while performing SR (EO) and by two patients when performing one leg stance. None of the patients had any episodes of freezing during the timed performance tests.