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Table 2 Anatomical landmark description

From: Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

Anatomical Landmark Segment Description
HF= Head of the Fibula Tibia= tibia+ fibula Proximal tip of the head of the fibula.
TT = Tibial Tuberosity   The most anterior border of the proximal extremity of tibial tuberosity.
LM = Lateral Malleolus   The lateral apex of the external malleolus.
MM = Medial Malleolus   Medial apex of the internal malleolus
ca= Calcaneus Hindfoot= calcaneus and astragalus Lower ridge of the calcaneus posterior surface.
PT = Peroneal Tubercle   Sitting with unloaded foot placed at 90° with respect to the sagittal axis of the fibula. Following the prolongation of inferior apex of the lateral malleolus, aligned with the longitudinal axis of the tibia, place the marker on the first bone prominence below the lateral mallleolus.
ST = Sustentaculum Talii   Sitting with unloaded foot placed at 90° with respect to the sagittal axis of the fibula. Following the prolongation of inferior apex of the medial malleolus, aligned with the longitudinal axis of the tibia, place the marker 2 cm under the distal border of the lateral malleolus: in correspondence of the last medial bone prominence before the medial muscle-tendon insertion of the calcaneus.
NT = Navicular Tuberosity Midfoot= scaphoid, cuboid, 1st, 2nd, 3rd cuneiform, 1st, 2nd, 3rd metatarsus Sitting with his unloaded foot placed at 90° with respect to the sagittal axis of the fibula. Ask the subject to relax the foot and find the proximal epyphisis of the 1st metatarsal. Following the line between the proximal epyphisis of the 1st metatarsal and the lower ridge of the calcaneus the first prominence that you palpate is the cuneiform and the second is the navicular. Once found the navicular bone on that line place the marker on the navicular following the line orthogonal to the floor on the interior side of the extensor longus of the allux (ask the subject to rise the allux to find the extensor longus).
C= Cuboid   Sitting with his unloaded foot placed at 90° with respect to the sagittal axis of the fibula. In correspondence of the proximal aspect of the 5th metatarsal base following the direction of the tibia axis (orthogonal to the floor) place the marker on the first bone prominence you palpate on the cuboid.
VMB = Fifth Metatarsal Base   The most external surface of the base of the fifth metatarsus.
IMH = First Metatarsal Heads Forefoot= 1st, 2nd,3rd,4th,5th metatarsal heads and phalanxes (1st, 2nd,3rd,4th,5th toes) Head of the 1st metatarsus
VMH = Fifth Metatarsal Heads   Head of the Vth metatarsus
IIT = Proximal epiphysis of second toe phalanx   Choose the 2nd ray with the left hand, and with the right hand move the proximal phalanx of the second toe in dorsi and plantarflexion; place 1 cm distal from the joint interstice.