Dipolar cortico-muscular stimulation (dCMS) augments cortically-elicited muscle contraction and spinal motoneuronal response in animals with SCI. A: representative gastrocnemius muscle twitches induced by stimulating the contralateral M1, upper and lower panels show muscle twitches before and after dCMS. B: contralateral cortically-elicited spinal response before (upper panel) and after (lower panel) dCMS are shown. C: representative muscle twitches recorded from the ipsilateral (to stimulated M1) gastrocnemius muscle. D: the upper and lower panels show ipsilateral cortically-elicited spinal responses before and after dCMS. E: quantification of results from 9 animals with SCI revealed that contralateral (Co) (to stimulated M1) muscle twitch force was significantly increased, as did the ipsilateral (Ips) (to stimulated M1) muscle twitch force. F: similarly, quantification of cortically-elicited spinal responses from the same animals revealed significant increase in both contralateral and ipsilateral (to stimulated M1) after dCMS. *p < 0.05. Data show means ± SD.