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Table 2 Immediate and long term training effects

From: Audio-Biofeedback training for posture and balance in Patients with Parkinson's disease

Measures Pre training Post training Follow up
Berg Balance test 49.0 ± 7.2 (35-55) 50.4 ± 6.7 (37-55)* 49.6 ± 9.2 (30-55)
Timed Up & Go (sec) 13.2 ± 4.1 (9.4-20.0) 11.7 ± 2.9 (9.2-17.1) 10.8 ± 2.4 (9.0-16.1)*
5 Chair Rise Test (sec) 16.6 ± 3.4 (14.3-21.4) 15.3 ± 1.0 (12.2-16.8) N/A
UPDRS (part III) 25.3 ± 11.7 (12-48) 24.4 ± 10.6 (12-45) 23.4 ± 10.4 (12-44)
Posture (UPDRS item 28) 2.3 ± 0.6 (1-3) 2.2 ± 0.7 (1-3) 2.2 ± 0.7 (1-3)
Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (%) 73.2 ± 15.4 (49.8-97.5) 73.3 ± 15.9 (49.4-100) 73.7 ± 18.9 (40.9-100)
Geriatric Depression Scale 5.8 ± 5.0 (1-13) 3.8 ± 3.5 (0-10) 6.1 ± 5.3 (0-14)
PDQ-39    
Total score 33.4 ± 18.7 (15.1-62.5) 31.7 ± 18.5(12.3-58) 36.8 ± 17.5(16.1-51.6)
   Mobility index 41.8 ± 19.9 (12.5-67.5) 40 ± 17.3 (12.5-70) 37.5 ± 14.9 (12.5-50)*
   ADL index 48.2 ± 20.4 (20.8-70.8) 46.4 ± 17.6 (20.8-75) 46.6 ± 22.5 (20.8-75)
   Cognitive index 39.5 ± 27.6 (6.2-75) 26.8 ± 15.6 (6.2-50)* 33.7 ± 20.5 (6.2-62.5)
  1. Values are average ± SD (range); ABC - Activities-specific Balance Confidence, 0-100%, 100% = best; ADL, Activities of daily living, 0-100 points, 0 = best; BBS, Berg Balance Scale, 0-56 points, 56 = best; 5CR, five chair rise test; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale, 0-15, higher = worst; TUG, Timed up-and-go test; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, higher = worse; Total of the PDQ-39, higher = worst; Domains relevant to the training were also investigated separately. * p < 0.05 (at pre vs. post; at follow up vs. pre).