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Table 4 Results of walking assessment test

From: A biofeedback cycling training to improve locomotion: a case series study based on gait pattern classification of 153 chronic stroke patients

  Leg PRE POST FU P * P *
(pre vs post)
P *
(pre vs fu)
P *
(post vs fu)
S1         
   Stance Time P 64 (2) 63 (2) 65 (3) 0.43    
   [%stride] H 70 (2) 72 (2) 71 (3) 0.48    
   Swing Time P 36 (2) 37 (2) 35 (3) 0.43    
   [%stride] H 30 (2) 28 (2) 29 (3) 0.48    
   Stride Time P 1896(121) 1754 (38) 1764(129) 0.10    
   [ms] H 1880 (84) 1742(100) 1770(125) 0.13    
   Stride Length P 859 (18) 817 (26) 845 (34) 0.29    
   [mm] H 820 (25) 812 (51) 872 (40) 0.07    
   Swing Velocity P 1.27(0.08) 1.28(0.04) 1.40(0.14) 0.11    
   [m/s] H 1.47(0.05) 1.67(0.15) 1.69(0.13) 0.03 0.07 0.04 0.95
   Mean Velocity [m/s]   0.44(0.03) 0.47(0.01) 0.49(0.03) 0.07    
   ST Ratio   0.92(0.04) 0.89(0.03) 0.92(0.04) 0.32    
   SV Ratio   0.86(0.05) 0.77(0.09) 0.83(0.11) 0.30    
S2         
   Stance Time P 48 (4) 54 (2) 53 (2) 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.76
   [%stride] H 79 (8) 69 (1) 66 (3) 0.01 0.04 0.10 0.97
   Swing Time P 52 (4) 46 (2) 47 (2) 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.76
   [%stride] H 21 (8) 31 (1) 34 (3) 0.01 0.04 0.10 0.97
   Stride Time P 1870(206) 1400 (96) 1663 (93) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.96 < 0.01
   [ms] H 2402(515) 1528(101) 1630 (79) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.03 0.90
   Stride Length P 637 (46) 745 (31) 630 (13) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.16 < 0.01
   [mm] H 619 (72) 788 (37) 666 (20) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.50 0.03
   Swing Velocity P 0.66(0.27) 1.12(0.07) 0.81(0.07) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.16 < 0.01
   [m/s] H 1.37(0.25) 1.66(0.14) 1.21(0.07) 0.02 0.05 0.50 0.02
   Mean Velocity [m/s]   0.31(0.04) 0.5 (0.03) 0.40(0.01) < 0.01 < 0.01 0.04 < 0.01
   ST Ratio   0.57(0.05) 0.72(0.03) 0.83(0.05) < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.02
   SV Ratio   0.53(0.14) 0.70(0.06) 0.67(0.03) 0.02 0.05 0.20 0.92
S3         
   Stance Time P 57 (2) 56 (2) 55 (3) 0.38    
   [%stride] H 68 (3) 65 (1) 65 (2) 0.04 0.05 0.14 0.91
   Swing Time P 43 (2) 44 (2) 45 (3) 0.38    
   [%stride] H 32 (3) 35 (1) 35 (2) 0.04 0.05 0.14 0.91
   Stride Time P 1264 (52) 1333 (84) 1297 (24) 0.24    
   [ms] H 1324 (55) 1332 (68) 1357 (77) 0.76    
   Stride Length P 986 (30) 1016 (59) 1012 (87) 0.42    
   [mm] H 1026 (19) 1053 (50) 1088 (69) 0.20    
   Swing Velocity P 1.82(0.14) 1.74(0.13) 1.73(0.05) 0.53    
   [m/s] H 2.45(0.27) 2.25(0.16) 2.31(0.26) 0.38    
   Mean Velocity [m/s]   0.78(0.04) 0.78(0.06) 0.78(0.04) 0.93    
   ST Ratio   0.80(0.04) 0.87(0.05) 0.81(0.07) 0.15    
   SV Ratio   0.75(0.09) 0.78(0.07) 0.76(0.09) 0.79    
  1. Values: Mean (SD)
  2. * P: Significance level of one way ANOVA (p < 0.05) - Post-hoc: Scheffè
  3. P indicates the paretic side; H, the healthy one.