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Table 3 Spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters of the study groups.

From: Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

  OLG OG CG d'
Spatio-temporal parameters
%stance (% gait cycle) 63.44 (1.24)* + 61.99 (1.00) 59.45 (1.45) 1.30
Double stance phase (% gait cycle) 26.54 (2.44)+ 25.01 (2.14)+ 23.60 (3.65) 0.67
Step length 0.34 (0.06)*+ 0.38 (0.06)+ 0.88 (0.21) 1.08
Cadence (step/min) 113.67 (5.99) 111.29 (8.28) 111.80 (4.80) 0.32
Velocity (1/s) 0.69 (0.07)+ 0.71 (0.09)+ 0.79 (0.07) 0.27
Hip joint (°)
HFE-ROM 42.99 (5.84) 42.89 (4.35) 43.52 (4.76) 0.02
HAA-ROM 15.12 (2.60)*+ 18.78 (1.81)+ 10.71 (3.06) 1.66
Knee joint (°)
KIC 3.27 (3.87) 4.23 (3.89) 4.06 (6.63) 0.25
KmSt -2.63 (3.94) -0.13 (4.23) 0.12 (3.82) 0.61
KMSw 52.23 (6.72)* + 58.12 (3.22) 59.01 (6.18) 1.19
KFE-ROM 55.26 (6.45)*+ 58.16 (5.41) 60.28 (6.31) 0.55
Ankle joint (°)
AIC -3.51 (3.03) 1.28 (2.15) 1.81 (4.87) 1.85
AMSt 10.51 (1.17)*+ 14.52 (2.98) 13.04 (5.16) 1.45
AmSt -14.32 (4.81)+ -17.08 (5.06)+ -11.74 (9.40) 0.54
ADP-ROM 27.95 (4.21) 30.55 (5.89) 22.72 (6.56) 0.59
AMSw 2.81 (2.54)* + 5.05 (1.85) 5.63 (4.93) 1.02
Hip Power (W/Kg)     
HPMax 2.41 (1.73)* + 1.05 (0.54)+ 0.67 (0.37) 1.20
Ankle Power (W/Kg)     
APmin -1.05 (0.21)+ -0.98 (0.19)+ -0.50 (0.29) 0.37
APMax 2.84 (0.64)+ 3.05 (0.61)+ 3.75 (0.86) 0.34
  1. Data are expressed as mean (standard deviation).
  2. * = p < 0.05, OLG compared to OG; + = p < 0.05, OLG and OG compared to CG
  3. (ROM: Range Of Motion; PT: Pelvic Tilt; PO: Pelvic Obliquity; HIC: Hip at IC; HFE: Hip Flex-Extension; HAA: Hip Ab-Adduction; KIC: Knee at IC; KFE: Knee Flex-Extension; AIC: Ankle at IC; ADP: Ankle Dorsi-Plantarflexion; AP: Ankle Power; HP: Hip Power; IC: Initial Contact; St: Stance; Sw: Swing; M and Max: maximum value; m and min: minimum value). Cohen effect Size d' is calculated to estimate the difference between OLG and OG.