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Table 4 Summary of the Direction Ratios for each performance measure across command sources, ANOVA results, and fixed effects between sources

From: Evaluation of head orientation and neck muscle EMG signals as three-dimensional command sources

DR 1,2       
Performance Command source ANOVA Fixed effects, p
Measure Head Or. EMG Joystick p HdOr. Joystick
Throughput (bits/s) 0.49 ± 0.11 0.47 ± 0.18 0.51 ± 0.13 0.247 0.391 0.094
Path Efficiency 0.54 ± 0.11 0.53 ± 0.19 0.59 ± 0.14 0.039 0.571 0.021
Overshoot 0.84 ± 0.34 1.14 ± 0.40 1.39 ± 0.57 0 0.000 0.003
Reaction Time (s) 0.77 ± 0.48 0.81 ± 0.39 0.84 ± 0.57 0.687 0.543 0.739
Average Speed (m/s) 1.01 ± 0.09 0.96 ± 0.11 0.97 ± 0.09 0.005 0.003 0.561
DR 1,3       
Performance Command source ANOVA Fixed effects, p
Measure Head Or. EMG Joystick p HdOr. Joystick
Throughput (bits/s) 0.34 ± 0.09 0.30 ± 0.12 0.36 ± 0.08 0.001 0.040 0.001
Path Efficiency 0.39 ± 0.09 0.38 ± 0.14 0.45 ± 0.10 4e-04 0.473 0.001
Overshoot 1.24 ± 0.52 1.38 ± 0.46 1.36 ± 0.66 0.262 0.087 0.814
Reaction Time (s) 0.73 ± 0.53 0.85 ± 0.38 0.82 ± 0.58 0.333 0.111 0.729
Average Speed (m/s) 0.98 ± 0.08 0.96 ± 0.15 0.94 ± 0.10 0.111 0.194 0.341
DR 2,3       
Performance Command source ANOVA Fixed effects, p
Measure Head Or. EMG Joystick p HdOr. Joystick
Throughput (bits/s) 0.69 ± 0.11 0.64 ± 0.16 0.70 ± 0.10 0.002 0.026 0.003
Path Efficiency 0.72 ± 0.11 0.71 ± 0.20 0.76 ± 0.10 0.04 0.744 0.050
Overshoot 1.48 ± 0.46 1.21 ± 0.45 0.98 ± 0.30 0 0.000 0.000
Reaction Time (s) 0.95 ± 0.40 1.05 ± 0.39 0.98 ± 0.41 0.208 0.082 0.244
Average Speed (m/s) 0.98 ± 0.09 1.00 ± 0.08 0.97 ± 0.09 0.05 0.053 0.009
  1. Boldface values denote statistical significance.