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Table 2 Statistical results of repeated measures ANOVA

From: Effects of handrail hold and light touch on energetics, step parameters, and neuromuscular activity during walking after stroke

  Main effects of condition TOUCH vs NORM HOLD vs NORM
  df F p η p 2 a F pb η p 2 a F pb η p 2 a
Energy cost 2.00 8.35 .001 .323 .09 1.000 .006 8.46 .023* .377
Spatiotemporal step parameters           
   Stride time 1.09 17.38 .001* .581 .54 .953 .037 19.54 .001* .583
   Stride time SD 1.03 0.91 .358 .075 .92 .708 .062 0.93 .705 .062
   Stride time asymmetry 1.12 3.54 .075 .175 1.47 .490 .095 3.81 .142 .214
   Stride length 1.17 35.13 .000* .723 .82 .761 .055 40.53 .000* .743
   Stride length SD 1.04 1.46 .248 .100 1.36 .526 .089 1.59 .457 .102
   Stride length asymmetry 1.42 7.32 .008* .359 3.57 .160 .203 9.69 .015* .409
   Step width 2.00 32.18 .000* .652 7.13 .037* .337 52.17 .000* .788
   Step width SD 2.00 18.89 .000* .551 .74 .805 .051 23.96 .000* .631
Muscle activation parameters           
   RMS mode 1 2.00 30.44 .000* .685 1.37 .523 .089 68.87 .000* .831
   RMS mode 2 2.00 18.77 .000* .573 1.62 .447 .104 18.44 .001* .568
   RMS mode 3 1.41 34.71 .000* .713 1.65 .440 .105 42.97 .000* .754
   Relative phase variancec 2 6.41 .005* .288 .84 0.75 .056 5.88 .059 .296
   CAI GM_TA paretic 1.17 7.96 .011* .399 .00 1.000 .000 8.93 .023* .427
   CAI TA_PL paretic 1.14 .54 .497 .043 .10 1.000 .008 .57 .927 .046
   CAI RF_ST paretic 2 1.03 .373 .079 2.06 .354 .146 .11 1.000 .009
   CAI GM_TA nonparetic 2 51.95 .000* .812 .69 .846 .054 64.88 .000* .844
   CAI TA_PL nonparetic 2 6.46 .006* .350 .41 1.000 .033 8.58 .025* .417
   CAI RF_ST nonparetic 2 1.82 .183 .132 2.02 .361 .144 2.48 .282 .171
  1. a = estimate of effect size, partial eta squared; b p-value corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferoni correction. c = calculated using EMG normalized to unit variance over conditions, instead of normalized to NORM trial as reference