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Table 2 Within- and between day measurement error: Standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable difference (SDD)

From: Assessment of net knee moment-angle characteristics by instrumented hand-held dynamometry in children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing children

Group Knee angle at
0.5 Nm 1 Nm 2 Nm 3 Nm 4 Nm Maximum
SEM SDD SEM SDD SEM SDD SEM SDD SEM SDD SEM SDD
TD (between-day) 6.1° 17.0° 5.0° 13.8° 4.2° 11.7° 4.3° 11.9° 4.6° 12.7° 4.6° 12.6°
TD (within-day) 6.1° 16.8° 5.4° 14.9° 5.2° 14.5° 5.0° 13.3° 4.7° 13.0° 3.9° 10.9°
  1. TD typically developing children, Units of SEMs SDDs are in degree