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Table 1 A summary of the five KINARM robot tasks

From: Test–retest reliability of KINARM robot sensorimotor and cognitive assessment: in pediatric ice hockey players

Task Behavioral attribute Parameter Definition
Visually Guided Reaching R & L Upper Limb Postural Control Posture speed (m/s) Mean hand speed when the hand should be at rest.
  Motor Response to a Visual Stimulus Reaction time (s) Time from target onset to movement onset.
  Feed-forward Control: Initial phase of the movement. Initial direction error (rad) Angular deviation between (i) a straight line from the hand position at movement onset to the destination target, (ii) a straight line from the hand position at movement onset to the hand position after the initial phase of movement.
  Feed-forward Control: Initial phase of the movement. Initial distance ratio Ratio of (i) the distance the hand travelled during the subject’s initial phase of movement to (ii) the distance the hand travelled between movement onset and movement offset (or the end of the trial if the destination target is not reached).
  Feed-forward Control: Initial phase of the movement. Initial speed ratio Ratio of (i) the maximum hand speed during the subject’s initial phase of movement to (ii) the global hand speed maximum of the trial.
  Feedback Control: Movement corrections after the initial motor response. Speed maxima count Number of hand speed maxima between movement onset and offset.
  Feedback Control: Movement corrections after the initial motor response. Minimum maximum speed difference (m/s) Differences between hand speed maxima and minima.
  Total Movement Movement time (s) Total time elapsed from movement onset to end.
  Total Movement Path length ratio Ratio of (i) the distance travelled by the hand between the movement onset and movement offset and (i) the straight line distance between the starting and destination targets.
  Total Movement Max speed (m/s) Global maximum hand speed.
Arm position matching R & L Position Sense Variability XY (m) Root-mean-square (RMS) of X and Y variables: mean value of the variability of the subject’s hand position in the X and Y directions.
  Position Sense Contraction/expansion ratio XY Ratio of the range of area moved over – arm moved by the subject compared to the arm moved by the robot. Ratio of range of movement in the x and y directions are used in the current ratio.
  Position Sense Shift XY (m) RMS of the X and Y shifts: mean difference between the mirrored x and y positions of the arm moved by the subject and the x and y positions of the arm (+ lateral shift, - median shift).
  Position Sense Absolute Error XY The mean absolute distance error across all trials.
Object Hit Global Performance Total hits Number of balls hit off the screen in the opposite direction from it original path.
  Global Performance Hits with left Number of balls hit with the left (L) hand
  Global Performance Hit with right Number of balls hit with the right (R) hand
  Motor Performance Hand bias hits Quantifies which hand is used more often for hitting the balls (hand dominance).
  Spatial & Temporal Performance Miss bias Quantifies any bias of misses toward one side of the work space or the other (x direction only).
  Spatial & Temporal Performance Hand transition Shows where the subject’s preference for using one hand over the other switches in the work space.
  Motor Performance Hand selection overlap Captures how effective subjects are at using both hands and how often they overlap hands (i.e., hit balls with both the R and L hands in the same area of the work space).
  Spatial & Temporal Performance Median error The percentage of the way through the task when the subject made half their errors.
  Motor Performance Hand speed L (m/s) The mean L hand speed maintained through the entire task.
  Motor Performance Hand speed R (m/s) The mean R hand speed maintained through the entire task.
   Hand bias Value from -1 to 1 that describes the bias in hand speed between the hands.
  Motor Performance Movement area L & R (m^2) Area of space the subject used with each hand during the task.
  Motor Performance Movement area bias Value from -1 to 1 that describes the bias in movement area between hands.
Object Hit & Avoid Includes the 14 parameters from Object Hit Distractor hits L Number of distractor objects hit with L hand.
  Global Performance Distractor hits R Number of distractor objects hit with the R hand.
  Global Performance Distractor hits total Number of distractor objects the subject hit; reported as the % of total distracters dropped.
Trail Making B Executive Function Total time (s) Total time from the targets being illuminated to touching the last target.
  Executive Function Dwell time (s) Total time spent with the hand feedback dot at the targets.
   Time ratio Time for targets 13/25/time for targets 1–12.
   Error count Number of times an incorrect target was touched.
  1. Legend: Behavioral attributes and definitions of task parameters are outlined