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# Table 3 Probability that the number of successes (performance differences between post- and pre-assessment > critical differences) is due to chance alone given a probability of success for each individual comparison of p = 0.01 and the total number of comparisons performed in each group.

(A) Probability that chance alone is responsible for cognitive improvements after training and total number of comparisons performed in each group
Alertness Divided Attention Cogn. Flexibility Inhibition WM STM LTM
SMR patients 0.38 (22) 0.65 (44) 0.42 (33) 0.86 (33) 0.17 (22) 1.64 × 10−5 (66)* 2.66 × 10−15 (99)*
UA patients 0.72 (12) 0.21 (24) 0.27 (18) 0.55 (18) 0.03 (12) 1.25 × 10−4 (36)* 1.11 × 10−12 (54)*
TAU patients 0.42 (14) 0.95 (28)   0.64 (21) 0.04 (14) 0.06 (28) 0.02 (35)
SMR CG 0.97 (32) 0.89 (64) 0.87 (48) 0.99 (48) 0.003 (32)* 3.50 × 10−8 (96)* 3.55 × 10−15 (144)*
UA CG 0.20 (48) 0.05 (96) 0.18 (72) 0.86 (72) 4.35 × 10−5 (48)* 3.12 × 10−11 (144)* <1 × 10−35 (216)*
(B) Probability that chance alone is responsible for cognitive declines after training and total number of comparisons performed in each group
SMR patients 0.66 (22) 0.27 (44) 1.00 (33) 0.23 (33) 0.90 (22) 0.002 (66) 0.94 (99)
UA patients 0.34 (12) 0.92 (24) 0.85 (18) 0.85 (18) 0.72 (12) 0.06 (36) 0.04 (54)
TAU patients 0.77 (14) 0.79 (28)   0.89 (21) 0.77 (14) 0.14 (28) 0.69 (35)
SMR CG 0.84 (32) 0.96 (64) 1.00 (48) 0.87 (48) 0.40 (32) 0.05 (96) 0.37 (144)
UA CG 0.35 (48) 0.36 (96) 0.99 (72) 0.99 (72) 0.53 (48) 0.0005 (144)* <1 × 10−35 (216)*
1. Probability that chance alone is responsible for improvements (A) and declines (B) in cognitive performance after training, presented separately for stroke patients and healthy controls for the different cognitive constructs (short-term STM, long-term LTM, and working memory WM). Uncorrected p-values, which were significant after correction for multiple comparisons employing false discovery rates [48], are marked with asterisks.