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Table 2 Comparison of the study outcome measures

From: The effect of balance training on postural control in people with multiple sclerosis using the CAREN virtual reality system: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Parameters VR group (n = 15) Standardized exercise group (n = 15) F (P-value) for time factor F (P-value) for group X time factor
Pre-intervention Post-intervention Mean difference Pre-intervention Post-intervention Mean difference
Posturography- eyes open         
 CoP path length (mm) 345.3 (76.2) 290.5 (105.3) −54.8 (52.4) 313.5 (89.5) 272.9 (78.4) −40.6 (32.9) 5.278 (0.024)* 1.569 (0.226)
 Sway rate (mm/s) 17.0 (6.3) 13.0 (6.5) −3.0 (3.4) 16.1 (6.3) 12.6 (4.4) −3.5 (3.4) 5.852 (0.035)* 0.997 (0.232)
 Ellipse sway area (mm2) 309.0 (116.3) 319.8 (130.5) 10.8 (74.2) 309.0 (116.3) 319.8 (130.5) 10.8 (74.2) 0.754 (0.872) 0.659 (0.624)
 Pressure distribution difference (%) 9.4 (7.4) 9.5 (6.3) 0.1 (6.1) 9.4 (7.4) 9.5 (6.3) 0.1 (6.1) 0.076 (0.984) 0.085 (0.892)
Posturography- eyes closed         
 CoP path length (mm) 392.3 (112.3) 333.1 (156.4) −59.2 (98.0) 376.1 (102.9) 343.2 (146.9) 32.9 (102.4) 1.023 (0.189) 0.067 (0.348)
 Sway rate (mm/s) 20.1 (15.3) 18.4 (9.8) −1.7 (7.7) 22.4 (12.4) 18.9 (11.8) −3.5 (8.0) 0.921 (0.239) 0.910 (0.296)
 Ellipse sway area (mm2) 378.3 (109.5) 342.5 (100.5) −35.8 (94.2) 363.3 (99.1) 338.8 (109.4) −24.5 (72.1) 1.351 (0.137) 0.004 (0.981)
 Pressure distribution difference 9.9 (7.9) 10.3 (8.3) 0.4 (5.1) 9.6 (7.1) 10.7 (6.3) 1.1 (5.9) 0.045 (0.887) 0.019 (0.675)
Clinical balance tests         
 FRT (cm) 30.1 (5.0) 34.8 (6.9) 4.8 (4.1) 27.6 (6.4) 30.2 (4.9) 2.6 (3.2) 20.481 (0.001)* 10.173 (0.009)*
 BBT 46.8 (9.6) 47.9 (6.4) 1.1 (4.2) 43.3 (7.1) 44.6 (4.9) 1.3 (5.2) 1.541 (0.215) 1.794 (0.561)
 FSST (s) 16.2 (7.0) 12.7 (6.4) −4.5 (5.0) 14.2 (7.1) 11.7 (5.9) −3.5 (6.1) 9.011 (0.031)* 1.250 (0.361)
 FES-I questionnaire 36.4 (9.7) 29.4 (7.8) −7.0 (4.3) 32.9 (10.3) 28.6 (5.8) −4.3 (6.3) 17.815 (0.023)* 6.710 (0.021)*
  1. CoP Center of pressure, FRT Functional reach test, BBT Berg balance test, FSST Four step square test, FES-I Falls Efficacy Scale International
  2. Values are expressed as mean (S.D). *P-Value <0.05