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Table 3 Impact of bout length on free-living gait characteristics

From: Free-living gait characteristics in ageing and Parkinson’s disease: impact of environment and ambulatory bout length

Domain/gait characteristic ABs ≤ 10s 10s < ABs ≤ 20s 20s < ABs ≤ 30s
CL (n = 50) PD (n = 47) p CL (n = 50) PD (n = 47) p CL (n = 50) PD (n = 47) p
Pace 1663 steps 1603 steps   2196 steps 1926 steps   1517 steps 1181 steps  
Step Velocity (m/s) 0.934 (0.374) 0.910 (0.640) 0.145 1.046 ± 0.067 1.010 ± 0.111 0.059 1.082 (0.385) 1.009 (0.569) 0.003
Step Length (m) 0.537 (0.143) 0.528 (0.208) 0.066 0.588 (0.149) 0.570 (0.198) 0.002 0.600 (0.160) 0.587 (0.164) 0.001
Swing Time Var (s) 0.166 ± 0.013 0.172 ± 0.021 0.097 0.156 (0.093) 0.162 (0.097) 0.056 0.152 (0.133) 0.158 (0.097) 0.056
Variability (SD)          
Step Velocity Var (m/s) 0.390 (0.172) 0.374 (0.232) 0.196 0.383 (0.212) 0.376 (0.221) 0.479 0.388 (0.347) 0.375 (0.199) 0.511
Step Length Var (m) 0.163 (0.048) 0.160 (0.072) 0.231 0.153 (0.057) 0.154 (0.065) 0.431 0.150 (0.086) 0.154 (0.052) 0.048
Step Time Var (s) 0.204 (0.095) 0.205 (0.138) 0.457 0.186 (0.116) 0.187 (0.155) 0.289 0.181 (0.172) 0.183 (0.155) 0.201
Stance Time Var (s) 0.217 (0.114) 0.219 (0.193) 0.431 0.198 (0.144) 0.201 (0.191) 0.191 0.192 (0.194) 0.195 (0.194) 0.164
Rhythm          
Step Time (s) 0.611 (0.106) 0.61 (0.306) 0.639 0.609 (0.121) 0.618 (0.384) 0.220 0.607 (0.140) 0.619 (0.407) 0.054
Swing Time (s) 0.468 (0.090) 0.471 (0.230) 0.436 0.467 (0.103) 0.474 (0.298) 0.201 0.463 (0.105) 0.477 (0.305) 0.033
Stance Time (s) 0.760 (0.159) 0.755 (0.403) 0.891 0.761 (0.186) 0.760 (0.512) 0.488 0.753 (0.193) 0.758 (0.553) 0.130
Asymmetry          
Step Time Asy (s) 0.164 (0.123) 0.164 (0.171) 0.639 0.083 (0.135) 0.084 (0.156) 0.751 0.056 (0.103) 0.058 (0.112) 0.402
Swing Time Asy (s) 0.123 (0.080) 0.125 (0.133) 0.316 0.075 (0.116) 0.077 (0.144) 0.164 0.049 (0.082) 0.053 (0.147) 0.151
Stance Time Asy (s) 0.165 (0.116) 0.164 (0.149) 0.702 0.084 (0.131) 0.084 (0.149) 0.398 0.055 (0.108) 0.059 (0.132) 0.217
Postural Control          
Step Length Asy (m) 0.125 ± 0.012 0.121 ± 0.018 0.173 0.090 (0.117) 0.088 (0.102) 0.359 0.073 (0.068) 0.069 (0.074) 0.071
  30s < ABs ≤ 60s 60s < ABs ≤ 120 s ABs > 120 s
CL (n = 50) PD (n = 47) p CL (n = 50) PD (n = 47) p CL (n = 50) PD (n = 47) p
Pace 2226 steps 1632 steps   1596 steps 1205 steps   3797 steps 2975 steps  
Step Velocity (m/s) 1.103 (0.411) 1.038 (0.422) <0.001 1.110 (0.419) 1.032 (0.472) 0.003 1.137 (1.035) 1.029 (0.686) <0.001
Step Length (m) 0.609 (0.173) 0.593 (0.185) 0.003 0.608 (0.194) 0.590 (0.236) 0.034 0.632 (0.269) 0.581 (0.206) 0.005
Swing Time Var (s) 0.147 (0.138) 0.153 (0.134) 0.029 0.142 (0.127) 0.144 (0.156) 0.279 0.125 (0.174) 0.146 (0.181) 0.014
Variability (SD)          
Step Velocity Var (m/s) 0.376 (0.326) 0.369 (0.265) 0.411 0.370 ± 0.051 0.353 ± 0.062 0.153 0.354 (0.559) 0.351 (0.803) 0.573
Step Length Var (m) 0.148 (0.106) 0.150 (0.093) 0.141 0.144 (0.073) 0.146 (0.115) 0.806 0.145 (0.153) 0.150 (0.126) 0.511
Step Time Var (s) 0.174 (0.173) 0.178 (0.178) 0.033 0.170 (0.168) 0.172 (0.219) 0.214 0.151 (0.224) 0.180 (0.233) 0.042
Stance Time Var (s) 0.187 (0.199) 0.190 (0.249) 0.054 0.182 (0.185) 0.187 (0.297) 0.179 0.160 ± 0.047 0.181 ± 0.051 0.042
Rhythm          
Step Time (s) 0.600 (0.092) 0.610 (0.333) 0.057 0.591 (0.118) 0.604 (0.292) 0.033 0.576 (0.253) 0.599 (0.570) 0.001
Swing Time (s) 0.457 (0.100) 0.469 (0.259) 0.033 0.443 (0.110) 0.453 (0.191) 0.069 0.425 (0.132) 0.443 (0.403) <0.001
Stance Time (s) 0.750 (0.128) 0.753 (0.448) 0.145 0.742 (0.139) 0.755 (0.341) 0.041 0.723 (0.310) 0.754 (0.666) 0.001
Asymmetry          
Step Time Asy (s) 0.041 (0.067) 0.045 (0.068) 0.012 0.029 (0.034) 0.031 (0.078) 0.082 0.019 (0.037) 0.022 (0.17) 0.419
Swing Time Asy (s) 0.036 (0.055) 0.041 (0.072) 0.001 0.026 (0.033) 0.029 (0.059) 0.166 0.018 (0.050) 0.019 (0.127) 0.525
Stance Time Asy (s) 0.041 (0.067) 0.045 (0.071) 0.009 0.028 (0.041) 0.029 (0.043) 0.065 0.019 (0.040) 0.020 (0.211) 0.453
Postural Control          
Step Length Asy (m) 0.055 (0.064) 0.055 (0.073) 0.554 0.036 (0.047) 0.036 (0.058) 0.868 0.020 (0.069) 0.024 (0.766) 0.073
  1. Var variability, Asy asymmetry, steps steps per day
  2. Values of gait characteristics for controls (CL) and people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) derived from free-living data grouped by ambulatory bout (AB) lengths (ABs ≤ 10s, 10s < ABs ≤ 20s, 20s < ABs ≤ 30s, 30s < ABs ≤ 60s, 60s < ABs ≤ 120 s, ABs > 120 s), values of normal gait characteristics are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD), non-normal as median (range). Average number of steps per day (steps) taken into account for each AB length are presented for both the groups. Results of the t-test or the Mann–Whitney U test (for non-normal gait characteristics) analysis between people with PD and CL are reported, in bold are shown p values < 0.01