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Table 2 Outcomes across testing time points (baseline: PRE, post-testing: POST, follow-up: RETN)

From: Task-specific ankle robotics gait training after stroke: a randomized pilot study

Outcome Variable (mean ± SE) TMR (n = 14) SRT (n = 12) TMR vs. SRT (P-values)
PRE POST RETN PRE POST RETN PRE-POST PRE-RETN
A. Overground gait  
 Velocity (cm/sec) 55.5 ± 5.7 58.6 ± 5.5 P = 0.20 61.5 ± 5.6 P = 0.03 56.0 ± 8.3 56.1 ± 8.5 P = 0.70 50.9 ± 7.8 P = 0.25 0.24 0.01
 Paretic single support (% cycle) 20.7 ± 1.8 21.8 ± 1.8 P = 0.12 22.5 ± 1.9 P = 0.03 22.0 ± 2.0 21.8 ± 2.0 P = 0.89 21.0 ± 2.1 P = 0.33 0.23 0.05
 Anterior-posterior impulse (Newton-sec.) −2.5 ± 4.9 9.6 ± 4.1 P = 0.009 16.7 ± 6.0 P = 0.007 2.1 ± 4.8 0.7 ± 5.1 P = 0.72 4.1 ± 5.6 P = 0.89 0.11 0.02
 Paretic single support center of pressure length (cm) 3.78 ± 0.57 3.81 ± 0.53 P = 0.98 4.56 ± 0.59 P = 0.009 4.05 ± 1.02 4.30 ± 0.97 P = 0.35 4.38 ± 0.94 P = 0.48 0.22 0.10
 Single support center of pressure symmetry, (paretic-to-nonparetic) 0.52 ± 0.07 0.53 ± 0.08 P = 0.64 0.62 ± 0.07 P = 0.005 0.60 ± 0.10 0.61 ± 0.09 P = 0.70 0.66 ± 0.09 P = 0.79 0.21 0.10
B. Ankle motor control  
 Ankle targeting speed (deg/sec) 5.4 ± 0.8 5.5 ± 0.5 P = 0.93 6.2 ± 0.4 P = 0.75 2.5 ± 0.6 4.7 ± 0.4 P = 0.005 5.1 ± 0.5 P = 0.005 0.07 0.03
 Ankle target accuracy (% success) 65.5 ± 7.4 61.9 ± 7.7 P = 0.59 70.3 ± 6.7 P = 0.31 32.4 ± 7.6 76.0 ± 7.8 P = 0.002 70.5 ± 9.4 P = 0.005 0.01 0.01
 Dorsiflexion active range of motion (deg) 1.5 ± 2.4 12.7 ± 2.5 P = 0.004 10.8 ± 2.6 P = 0.013 1.1 ± 5.7 5.5 ± 2.1 P = 0.53 6.4 ± 1.8 P = 0.53 0.11 0.05
  1. Abbreviations: TMR treadmill robotic training, SRT seated robotic training, SE standard error. Within group analyses used Wilcoxon Sign Rank test with P-values referenced to baseline (PRE) and between groups used Fisher’s exact test