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Table 2 Mean and standard deviation showed for kinematic and kinetic in sagittal plane for left limb

From: Collaborative robotic biomechanical interactions and gait adjustments in young, non-impaired individuals

  Conditions Statistical analysis
Variables OUT AM SDM OUT vs AM AM vs SDM
Sagittal kinematic (degree)     F p F p
 Maximum ankle (D-FLEX) 79.34 (4.42) 79.69 (4.49) 83.97 (4.04) 0.264 0.614 25.858 0.000
 Minimum ankle (P-FLEX) 51.14 (6.95) 44.78 (6.32) 45.93 (7.64) 32.797 0.000 2.570 0.125
 Ankle angular excursion 28.19 (5.61) 34.90 (4.18) 38.03 (6.73) 28.089 0.000 7.571 0.013
 Maximum hip (FLEX) 29.09 (7.33) 30.47 (6.85) 38.33 (7.82) 0.702 0.413 51.824 0.000
 Hip angular excursion 42.40 (4.71) 46.09 (6.63) 53.60 (7.33) 7.725 0.012 28.789 0.000
 Maximum knee (EXT) 4.35 (4.87) 3.27 (4.51) 0.40 (4.75) 2.019 0.172 9.851 0.005
 Minimum knee (FLEX) −59.02 (4.62) −58.26 (4.34) −60.81 (4.34) 0.685 0.418 14.982 0.001
Sagittal Kinetic (Nm/Kg)        
 Maximal anterior-posterior force (BF) 1.44 (0.27) 0.65 (0.39) 0.11 (0.07) 83.223 0.000 34.739 0.000
 Minimal anterior-posterior force (PF) −1.52 (0.22) −1.63 (0.26) −2.12 (0.30) 2.075 0.166 66.126 0.000
 Maximal vertical force 10.64 (0.69) 11.11 (0.67) 11.19 (0.70) 7.616 0.012 0.503 0.487
 Minimal vertical force −0.30 (0.12) −0.19 (0.10) −0.21 (0.11) 50.481 0.000 1.718 0.206
 Maximal hip moment (FLEX) 0.37 (0.12) 0.46 (0.16) 0.33 (0.18) 11.517 0.003 17.541 0.000
 Minimal hip moment (EXT) −0.61 (0.09) −0.73 (0.18) −0.92 (0.31) 12.422 0.002 12.885 0.002
Sagittal impulse (Ns/kg)     F p F p
 Breaking force 0.30 (0.05) 0.14 (0.07) 0.03 (0.06) 90.621 0.000 16.554 0.001
 Propulsive force −0.28 (0.08) −0.36 (0.13) −0.64 (0.18) 4.819 0.041 37.438 0.000
 Vertical force ES 0.92 (0.14) 0.82 (0.15) 0.85 (0.12) 6.007 0.024 0.863 0.365
 Vertical force MS 3.65 (0.41) 3.95 (0.60) 3.81 (0.41) 10.400 0.004 2.471 0.132
  1. Statistical analysis includes post hoc comparisons of two factors separately using repeated measures OUT vs AM and AM vs SDM conditions. When repeated measures overall testing showed that the main effects were not significant (p > 0.05), post-hoc tests were not conducted and not presented. Bold values indicate significant differences (p < 0.05). D-FLEX: dorsiflexion; P-FLEX: plantar flexion; FLEX: flexion; EXT: extension; BF: braking force; PF: propulsive force; ES: early stance; MS: mid-stance; LS: late stance