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Table 1 Optimization and forward dynamic simulation results

From: Neuro-musculoskeletal simulation of instrumented contracture and spasticity assessment in children with cerebral palsy

   TD (N = 9) CP (N = 11) Effect size p-value TD vs CP
   mean ± std mean ± std
Muscle properties
  S hamstrings 0.77 ± 0.15 0.57 ± 0.11 −0.20 0.008
  K hamstrings 3.59 ± 0.63 4.65 ± 1.27 1.07 0.057
  S vasti 4.21 ± 8.19 1.40 ± 1.73 −2.82 0.080
  K vasti 16.12 ± 15.28 8.73 ± 3.95 −7.40 0.322
  optimization error (Nm) 0.24 ± 0.12 0.10 ± 0.06 −0.14 0.004
FD RMS errors (°)
  FD slow 3.58 ± 2.38 1.12 ± 0.95 −2.46 0.006
 Stretch Only FD fast - no spas 6.17 ± 3.60 19.20 ± 6.76 13.03 0.000
FD fast - spas G1   14.59 ± 7.28   
FD fast - spas G2   9,00 ± 5,08   
FD fast - spas G4   9.61 ± 5.94   
FD fast - spas Gopt   5.95 ± 2.13   0.766a
 Stretch + Hold FD fast - no spas 10.55 ± 5.62 18.12 ± 5.81 7.57 0.016
FD fast - spas G1   17.85 ± 9.25   
FD fast - spas G2   15.27 ± 8.60   
FD fast - spas G4   12.19 ± 4.75  
FD fast - spas Gopt   10.40 ± 4.59   0.941a
  1. Abbreviations: TD typically developing, CP cerebral palsy, S passive muscle strain at optimum muscle force, K shape factor of passive force-length curve, FD forward dynamic results, G1-4 stretch reflex gain factors of 1 to 4, G opt optimal gain factor (0,1,2, or 4) per subject
  2. aSpas Gopt results were statistically compared against TD no spas