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Table 2 Examples of interlimb coordination-related protocols and measures used in motor control neuroscience

From: On the assessment of coordination between upper extremities: towards a common language between rehabilitation engineers, clinicians and neuroscientists

Paradigm Methods Reported measure (s) of interlimb coordination
Circle or ellipse drawing • Trace large circles with finger tips on horizontal plane
• Pacing with auditory signal
• 4 conditions: both clockwise, both counter-clockwise, both inwards, and both outwards [26]
• Difference in uniformity of relative tangential angle
• Difference in circular variance
• Difference in frequency deviation
• Differences in variability of frequency
• Uniformity of discrete relative phase
Aspect ratio
• Difference in spatial variability
• Trace circles by moving crank arms on horizontal plane
• Increasing tracing speed, from slow to fast
• Distortion of visual feedback of one arm
• 2 conditions: mirror symmetric starting at the same points or on opposite sides of circle [13]
Relative angle
• Trace large circles with finger tips on horizontal plane
• Pacing with visual signal; 2 frequencies
• 2 conditions: both inwards, and both counter-clockwise
• Continuous tracing or with pause between each completed circle [84]
• Difference in uniformity of relative tangential angle
Aspect ratio
• Difference in spatial error
Bilateral point-to-point movements • Forward movements in horizontal plane
• Targets stationary or moved when hand exceeds threshold velocity
• Targets visually misrepresented closer or farther away from true target location
• Gaze on non-target location [27]
• Difference in endpoint error
• Difference in movement duration
• Difference in size of on-line adjustment
• Difference in onset of on-line adjustment
• Lateral spatial separation
• Forward or outward movements in horizontal plane
• Targets stationary
• Targets visually represented directly or through symbolic cues (i.e., letters) [56]
• Difference in reaction time
• Difference in movement time
• Draw back-and-forth lines
• a vertical line task in the left limb, and a star task in the right limb (either separately or simultaneously)
• Movements were restricted to the shoulder and elbow [85]
• Mean and standard deviation of orientation of each line drawing with respect to the horizontal reference position
Bilateral (physically) coupled movements • Forward and backward movements in horizontal plane
• Hands on ends of rigid bar that rotates around midpoint
• Move bar without rotating [86, 87]
Balance error
Average stopping field
• Movements in horizontal plane
• Hands on ends of stiff bar (can elongate or compress) virtually rendered between manipulandums
• Transport virtual ball, that can roll along the bar, to static targets [88]
Absolute tilt
• Difference in reaction time
• Change in bar length
• Difference in hand speed
• Difference in hand speed peaks
• Difference in hand path length