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Table 3 Summary of bilateral training devices and reported measures of interlimb coordination

From: On the assessment of coordination between upper extremities: towards a common language between rehabilitation engineers, clinicians and neuroscientists

Device Interlimb activities allowed by the device Reported measure of interlimb coordination
Able-X [89] Coupled arm movements in free space. None
Adaptive Bimanual Robotic Training [90] Coupled, visual and point symmetric. Relative power between arms
Rotational error
APBT (the Rocker) [91, 92] Mirror or near-symmetric (phase lag of 60°) wrist flexion and extension movements in the horizontal plane. None
ARCMIME [93] Uncoupled arm movements in one DOF (forwards and backwards). Adjustable plane. None
Batrac [9496] Uncoupled arm movements in one DOF (forwards and backwards). Adjustable plane. None
BFIAMT [97] Forward and backward movement over parallel tracks, bilateral reciprocal, and bilateral symmetric upper limb movement. None
Bimanual Handlebar [98] Coupled forward and backward arm movements as well as rotational movements of the end-effector around an axis perpendicular to the direction of the translation. Rotational error
Bimanual-Coordinated Training System [99] Uncoupled movements, one DOF. None
Bi-Manu-Track [100, 101] Mirror and visual symmetric forearm pronosupination and wrist flexion/extension. None
Braccio Di Ferro [86, 87, 102] Any, constrained to planar movements of the arm in the transverse plane involving elbow and shoulder flexion/extension. Average stopping field; balance error during a coupled reaching task
Driver’s SEAT [103, 104] Coupled, point-symmetric movements. None
EXO-UL7 [105, 106] Any, free space. Efficiency index for the Bilateral Movement Training
Hand Robotic Rehabilitation Device [107] Forearm pronosupination and wrist flexion/extension movements. None
Hand-Object-Hand (H-O-H) [108] Coupled wrist flexion/extension movements. None
KINARM [88] Any, constrained to planar movements of the arm in the transverse plane involving elbow and shoulder flexion/extension. Absolute tilt
• Difference in reaction time
Change in bar length
• Difference in hand speed
• Difference in hand speed peaks
• Difference in hand path length
MIME [109112] Any arm movement. None
Reha-Slide [113] Coupled arm movements in one DOF (forwards and backwards). Adjustable plane. None
Reha-Slide Duo [114] Uncoupled arm movements in one DOF (forwards and backwards). Adjustable plane. None
The Bimanual Lifting Rehabilitator [115] Coupled arm movements, similar to lifting a tray. Time series similarity between right and left hand lift forces
Virtual Reality Piano [116] Any. Performance time
Sequential accuracy