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Table 4 Exploratory statistical analysis outcomes

From: Do children and adolescent ice hockey players with and without a history of concussion differ in robotic testing of sensory, motor and cognitive function?

KINARM robot tasks Age group Age group 10,11: mean (SD) Age 12,13,14: mean (SD) Handedness Right: mean (SD) Left: mean (SD)
Visually guided reach: right F(10, 374) = 2.337, p = 0.011 NA NA F(10, 374) = 1.498, p = 0.138 NA NA
 Reaction time (s) p = 0.018 0.282 (0.097) 0.264 (0.030) NA NA NA
 Initial direction error (rad) p = 0.003 0.053 (0.024) 0.046 (0.021) NA NA NA
 Initial distance ratio p = 0.001 0.853 (0.098) 0.885 (0.073) NA NA NA
 Initial speed ratio p = 0.001 0.963 (0.040) 0.976 (0.029) NA NA NA
 Speed max count p = 0.004 2.60 (0.460 2.46 (0.495) NA NA NA
 Movement time (s) p < 0.001 1.111 (0.183) 1.044 (0.159) NA NA NA
 Max speed (m/s) p = 0.002 0.254 (0.071) 0.277 (0.067) NA NA NA
Visually guided reach: left F(10, 374) = 3.189, p = 0.001 NA NA F(10, 374) = 3.139, p = 0.001 NA NA
 Reaction time (s) p < 0.001 0.280 (0.037) 0.265 (0.031) NA NA NA
 Initial direction error (rad) p = 0.003 0.883 (0.067) 0.901 (0.043) p = 0.008 0.049 (0.016) 0.043 (0.015)
 Movement time (s) p = 0.006 1.069 (0.136) 1.031 (0.126) NA NA NA
 Max speed (m/s) p = 0.006 0.269 (0.071) 0.290 (0.072) NA NA NA
 Speed max count NA NA NA p = 0.03 2.35 (0.35) 2.47 (0.42)
 Path length ratio NA NA NA p = 0.037 1.19 (0.09) 1.16 (0.070
Arm position matching: right F(12, 372) = 0.977, p = 0.470 NA NA F(12, 372) = 1.846, p = 0.040 NA NA
 Contraction/expansion ratio X NA NA NA p = 0.023 0.922 (0.280) 1.022 (0.270)
 Contraction/expansion ratio Y NA NA NA p = 0.045 0.983 (0.102) 1.014 (0.074)
 Contraction/expansion ratio XY NA NA NA p = 0.009 0.919 (0.309) 1.045 (0.299)
 Shift Y NA NA NA p = 0.029 −0.008 (0.019) −0.014 (0.013)
Arm position matching: left F(12, 372) =1.603, p = 0.088 NA NA F(12, 372) = 0.916, p = 0.531 NA NA
 Object hit F(13, 370) =3.657, p < 0.001 NA NA F(13,370) = 5.678, p < 0.001 NA NA
  Total hits p < 0.001 152 (24) 167 (22) NA NA NA
  Hits with L p < 0.001 70 (14) 77 (13) p < 0.001 72 (13) 82 (16)
  Hits with R p < 0.001 82 (15) 90 (15) p = 0.001 86 (15) 78 (16)
  Median error p = 0.001 58 (3) 59 (3) NA NA NA
  Hand speed L (m/s) p = 0.005 0.229 (0.054) 0.254 (0.059) NA NA NA
  Hand speed R (m/s) p = 0.037 0.255 (0.062) 0.235 (0.058) NA NA NA
  Hand speed bias p = 0.001 0.052 (0.100) −0.037 (0.110) p < 0.001 0.052 (0.076) −0.027 (0.092)
  Movement area bias p = 0.001 0.036 (0.101) −0.024 (0.117) NA NA NA
  Hand bias hits NA NA NA p = 0.001 0.092 (0.093) −0.027 (0.115)
  Miss bias NA NA NA p = 0.004 −0.002 (0.032) 0.012 (0.029)
  Hand transition NA NA NA p = 0.009 −0.017 (0.032) −0.003 (0.037)
  Hand speed L (m/s) NA NA NA p = 0.003 0.302 (0.069) 0.335 (0.077)
  Movement area (m^2) NA NA NA p = 0.004 0.035 (0.077) −0.001 (0.084)
 Object hit & avoid F(12, 372) =2.436, p = 0.005 NA NA F(12, 372) = 4.506, p = 0.127 NA NA
  Total hits p < 0.001 102 (17) 111 (18) NA NA NA
  Hits with L p < 0.001 47 (10) 52 (11) NA NA NA
  Hits with R p < 0.001 55 (11) 59 (11) NA NA NA
  Median error p = 0.029 59 (5) 60 (5) NA NA NA
  Hand speed L (m/s) p = 0.014 0.226 (0.054) 0.240 (0.055) NA NA NA
Trail making task B F(4, 376) = 4.256, p = 0.002 NA NA F(4, 376) =0.711, p = 0.585 NA NA
 Test time (s) p < 0.001 64 (21) 56 (17) NA NA NA
 Dwell time (s) p < 0.001 32 (11) 28 (11) NA NA NA
  1. Secondary exploratory analysis using separate MANOVAs for 1) Age Groups (Age 10 & 11 versus Age 12, 13, & 14) and 2) Handedness (Right versus Left) across all five KINARM tasks; mean parameter values are presented for those which were found to be statistically significant (NA not applicable)