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Table 6 Parameter reference range for healthy controls versus children with concussion history

From: Do children and adolescent ice hockey players with and without a history of concussion differ in robotic testing of sensory, motor and cognitive function?

Visually guided reach Reference range: R History of concussion parameter means: R (Std) Reference range: L History of concussion parameter means: L (Std)
 Posture speed (m/s) 0.00074–0.00562 0.003 (0.001) 0.00105–0.00625 0.004 (0.002)
 Reaction time (s) 0.207–0.332 0.265 (0.031) 0.214–0.330 0.269 (0.035)
 Initial direction error (rad) 0.0197–0.0887 0.048 (0.019) 0.01972–0.0792 0.047 (0.014)
 Initial distance ratio 0.6771–1 0.867 (0.09) 0.8258–1 0.885 (0.076)
 Initial speed ratio 0.9044–1 0.969 (0.029) 0.9182–1 0.972 (0.031)
 Speed maxima count 1.5526–3.2000 2.550 (0.487) 1.525–2.974 2.374 (0.380)
 Minimum maximum speed difference (m/s) 0.00503–0.0330 0.017 (0.008) 0.00531–0.03428 0.018 (0.009)
 Movement time (s) 0.7665–1.388 1.097 (0.192) 0.694–1.297 1.064 (0.134)
 Path length ratio 1.0422–1.2892 1.152 (0.071) 1.0511–1.3345 1.181 (0.095)
 Max speed (m/s) 0.16405–0.52206 0.258 (0.074) 0.1856–0.6092 0.269 (0.080)
Arm position matching Reference range History of concussion parameter means: R (Std) Reference range History of concussion parameter means: L (Std)
 Variability X (m) 0.0139–0.0861 0.047(0.028) 0.0163–0.1017 0.042(0.027)
 Variability Y (m) 0.0058–0.0287 0.019(0.010) 0.0075–0.0331 0.017(0.008)
 Variability XY (m) 0.0178–0.08892 0.052 (0.028) 0.0189–0.1060 0.045 (0.027)
 Contraction/expansion ratio X 0.2313–1.300 0.913(0.312) 0.1979–1.3720 0.952(0.233)
 Contraction/expansion ratio Y 0.7658–1.1623 0.983(0.130) 0.8136–1.1636 0.976(0.119)
 Contraction/expansion ratio XY 0.2489–1.4161 0.918 (0.353) 0.1601–1.4422 0.944 (0.278)
 Shift X (m) −0.1200–0.0596 −0.030(0.059) −0.123–0.052 −0.022(0.067)
 Shift Y (m) −0.0377–0.02391 −0.006(0.022) −0.03992–0.01962 −0.009(0.018)
 Shift XY (m) 0.00866–0.29611 0.052 (0.046) 0.01205–0.2531 0.050 (0.053)
 Absolute Error X 0.0135–0.1655 0.067(0.040) 0.0187–0.1659 0.063(0.059)
 Absolute Error Y 0.0061–0.0372 0.024(0.015) 0.0076–0.0399 0.022(0.016)
 Absolute Error XY 0.02033–0.16927 0.076 (0.050) 0.0259–0.1698 0.071 (0.060)
Object hit Reference range History of concussion parameter means (Std) NA NA
 Total hits 120–216 160 (27) NA NA
 Hits with left 50–116 72 (14) NA NA
 Hit with right 62–118 88 (18) NA NA
 Hand bias hits −0.1579–0.2814 0.096 (0.107) NA NA
 Miss bias −0.0556–0.0665 −0.006 (0.034) NA NA
 Hand transition −0.0764–0.0504 −0.016 (0.033) NA NA
 Hand selection overlap 0.0779–0.3009 0.151 (0.042) NA NA
 Median error 50–63 59 (3) NA NA
 Hand speed L (m/s) 0.2073–0.5849 0.299 (0.069) NA NA
 Hand speed R (m/s) 0.2330–0.5848 0.335 (0.086) NA NA
 Hand speed bias −0.1545–0.2024 0.052 (0.82) NA NA
 Movement area L (m^2) 0.0871–0.2021 0.127 (0.029) NA NA
 Movement area R (m^2) 0.0951–0.2155 0.139 (0.031) NA NA
 Movement area bias −0.1163–0.3828 0.044 (0.076) NA NA
Object hit & avoid Reference range History of concussion parameter means (Std) NA NA
 Total hits 77–159 108 (19) NA NA
 Hits with left 31–74 51 (10) NA NA
 Hit with right 39–88 57 (12) NA NA
 Miss bias −0.0667–0.0664 0.006 (0.033) NA NA
 Hand transition −0.0923–0.0528 −0.020 (0.037) NA NA
 Hand selection overlap 0.0430–0.2344 0.104 (0.039) NA NA
 Median error 43–67 60 (6) NA NA
 Hand speed L (m/s) 0.1469–0.4088 0.236 (0.053) NA NA
 Hand speed R (m/s) 0.1506–0.4443 0.253 (0.066) NA NA
 Movement area L (m^2) 0.0797–0.1933 0.120 (0.028) NA NA
 Movement area R (m^2) 0.0866–0.2112 0.125 (0.029) NA NA
 Distractor hits L 0–16 7 (4) NA NA
 Distractor hits R 0–16 7 (5) NA NA
 Distractor hits total 0–31 14 (9) NA NA
Trail Making B Reference range History of concussion parameter means (Std) NA NA
 Total time (s) 24–92 60 (21) NA NA
 Dwell time (s) 9–49 30 (11) NA NA
 Time ratio 0.3551–1.7837 1.1 (0.43) NA NA
 Error count 0–6 2 (2) NA NA
  1. Summary of the healthy control reference range for parameters from the five KINARM robot tasks compared to parameter means from children/adolescents with a history of concussion (NA not applicable)