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Table 7 Parameter reference range versus terciles based on time since last concussion

From: Do children and adolescent ice hockey players with and without a history of concussion differ in robotic testing of sensory, motor and cognitive function?

Visually guided reach Reference range: R Tercile 1: 0–11 months Tercile 2: 11–33 months Tercile 3: 33–111 months Reference range: L Tercile 1: 0–11 months Tercile 2: 11–33 months Tercile 3: 33–111 months
Mean (Std) Mean (Std) Mean (Std) Mean (Std) Mean (Std) Mean (Std)
 Posture speed (m/s) 0.00074–0.00562 0.003(0.001) 0.003(0.002) 0.003(0.001) 0.00105–0.00625 0.003(0.002) 0.004(0.002) 0.003(0.001)
 Reaction time (s) 0.207–0.332 0.257(0.030) 0.263(0.023) 0.275(0.038) 0.214–0.330 0.257(0.038) 0.278(0.037) 0.272(0.027)
 Initial direction error (rad) 0.0197–0.0887 0.046(0.020) 0.050(0.017) 0.049(0.020) 0.01972–0.0792 0.044(0.013) 0.048(0.013) 0.049(0.015)
 Initial distance ratio 0.6771–1 0.870(0.053) 0.868(0.106) 0.861(0.097) 0.8258–1 0.895(0.063) 0.887(0.062) 0.872(0.095)
 Initial speed ratio 0.9044–1 0.966(0.031) 0.977(0.024) 0.965(0.031) 0.9182–1 0.973(0.025) 0.973(0.036) 0.971(0.031)
 Speed maxima count 1.5526–3.2000 2.589(0.348) 2.469(0.555) 2.612(0.512) 1.525–2.974 2.410(0.379) 2.280(0.352) 2.431(0.391)
 Minimum maximum speed difference (m/s) 0.00503–0.0330 0.018(0.008) 0.017(0.007) 0.016(0.009) 0.00531–0.03428 0.018(0.11) 0.019(0.008) 0.017(0.008)
 Movement time (s) 0.7665–1.388 1.088(0.172) 1.082(0.181) 1.119(0.220) 0.694–1.297 1.056(0.104) 1.039(0.141) 1.093(0.151)
 Path length ratio 1.0422–1.2892 1.164(0.072) 1.154(0.058) 1.141(0.079) 1.0511–1.3345 1.184(0.117) 1.186(0.074) 1.174(0.088)
 Max speed (m/s) 0.16405–0.52206 0.272(0.079) 0.257(0.060) 0.247(0.079) 0.1856–0.6092 0.283(0.105) 0.270(0.059) 0.257(0.068)
Arm position matching Reference range: R Tercile 1: 0–11 months Tercile 2:11–33 months Tercile 3:33–111 months Reference range: L Tercile 1: 0–11 months Tercile 2:11–33 months Tercile 3:33–111 months
Mean (Std) Mean (Std) Mean (Std)   Mean (Std) Mean (Std) Mean (Std)
 Variability X (m) 0.0139–0.0861 0.043(0.024) 0.053(0.033) 0.046(0.023) 0.0163–0.1017 0.043(0.024) 0.038(0.017) 0.044(0.035)
 Variability Y (m) 0.0058–0.0287 0.020(0.016) 0.018(0.007) 0.017(0.004) 0.0075–0.0331 0.018(0.012) 0.016(0.005) 0.017(0.006)
 Variability XY (m) 0.0178–0.08892 0.048(0.027) 0.057(0.033) 0.049(0.023) 0.0189–0.1060 0.047(0.026) 0.041(0.070) 0.048(0.035)
 Contraction/expansion ratio X 0.2313–1.300 0.974(0.273) 0.859(0.297) 0.900(0.349) 0.1979–1.3720 0.972(0.262) 0.951(0.235) 0.930(0.194)
 Contraction/expansion ratio Y 0.7658–1.1623 0.977(0.187) 0.970(0.092) 1.001(0.070) 0.8136–1.1636 0.961(0.159) 0.965(0.099) 0.992(0.086)
 Contraction/expansion ratio XY 0.2489–1.4161 0.986(0.333) 0.849(0.327) 0.914(0.384) 0.1601–1.4422 0.962(0.303) 0.927(0.283) 0.935(0.242)
 Shift X (m) −0.1200–0.0596 −0.020(0.052) −0.025(0.059) −0.044(0.065) −0.123–0.052 −0.0001(0.064) −0.029(0.067) −0.036(0.064)
 Shift Y (m) −0.0377–0.02391 −0.005(0.023) −0.003(0.024) −0.008(0.018) −0.03992–0.01962 −0.013(0.019) −0.011(0.022) −0.006(0.012)
 Shift XY (m) 0.00866–0.29611 0.048(0.036) 0.050(0.046) 0.059(0.055) 0.01205–0.2531 0.052(0.043) 0.050(0.058) 0.048(0.060)
 Absolute Error X 0.0135–0.1655 0.057(0.034) 0.070(0.053) 0.075(0.056) 0.0187–0.1659 0.060(0.046) 0.065(0.065) 0.064(0.064)
 Absolute Error Y 0.0061–0.0372 0.026(0.020) 0.025(0.013) 0.022(0.010) 0.0076–0.0399 0.025(0.022) 0.024(0.015) 0.019(0.007)
 Absolute Error XY 0.02033–0.16927 0.068(0.039) 0.078(0.053) 0.083(0.054) 0.0259–0.1698 0.070(0.052) 0.074(0.064) 0.071(0.063)
Object hit Reference range: Tercile 1: 0–11 months Tercile 2:11–33 months Tercile 3:33–111 months NA NA NA NA
Mean (Std) Mean (Std) Mean (Std)
 Total hits 120–216 164(25) 158(26) 157(28) NA NA NA NA
 Hits with left 50–116 73(15) 73(14) 70(14) NA NA NA NA
 Hit with right 62–118 91(16) 86(18) 86(17) NA NA NA NA
 Hand bias hits −0.1579–0.2814 0.109(0.110) 0.073(0.122) 0.099(0.089) NA NA NA NA
 Miss bias −0.0556–0.0665 0.005(0.033) −0.007(0.033) −0.013(0.034) NA NA NA NA
 Hand transition −0.0764–0.0504 −0.026(0.034) −0.011(0.035) −0.011(0.029) NA NA NA NA
 Hand selection overlap 0.0779–0.3009 0.151(0.031) 0.166(0.042) 0.133(0.044) NA NA NA NA
 Median error 50–63 59(3) 58(3) 58(2) NA NA NA NA
 Hand speed L (m/s) 0.2073–0.5849 0.304(0.062) 0.315(0.071) 0.280(0.070) NA NA NA NA
 Hand speed R (m/s) 0.2330–0.5848 0.352(0.066) 0.388(0.094) 0.314(0.092) NA NA NA NA
 Hand speed bias −0.1545–0.2024 0.076(0.065) 0.027(0.085) 0.049(0.088) NA NA NA NA
 Movement area L (m^2) 0.0871–0.2021 0.135(0.026) 0.132(0.030) 0.114(0.026) NA NA NA NA
 Movement area R (m^2) 0.0951–0.2155 0.150(0.026) 0.140(0.032) 0.122(0.031) NA NA NA NA
 Movement area bias −0.1163–0.3828 0.052(0.075) 0.030(0.073) 0.050(0.080) NA NA NA NA
Object hit & avoid Reference range: Tercile 1: 0–11 months Tercile 2: 11–33 months Tercile 3: 33–111 months NA NA NA NA
Mean (Std) Mean (Std) Mean (Std)
 Total hits 77–159 110(17) 108(20) 104(19) NA NA NA NA
 Hits with left 31–74 50(10) 52(11) 49(10) NA NA NA NA
 Hit with right 39–88 59(10) 56(12) 55(11) NA NA NA NA
 Miss bias −0.0667–0.0664 0.010(0.035) 0.005(0.034) 0.005(0.030) NA NA NA NA
 Hand transition −0.0923–0.0528 −0.028(0.037) −0.012(0.038) −0.020(0.036) NA NA NA NA
 Hand selection overlap 0.0430–0.2344 0.106(0.040) 0.109(0.041) 0.098(0.035) NA NA NA NA
 Median error 43–67 60(6) 60(8) 60(4) NA NA NA NA
 Hand speed L (m/s) 0.1469–0.4088 0.244(0.050) 0.244(0.059) 0.223(0.050) NA NA NA NA
 Hand speed R (m/s) 0.1506–0.4443 0.264(0.060) 0.256(0.073) 0.241(0.066) NA NA NA NA
 Movement area L (m^2) 0.0797–0.1933 0.129(0.022) 0.123(0.029) 0.109(0.028) NA NA NA NA
 Movement area R (m^2) 0.0866–0.2112 0.136(0.023) 0.123(0.030) 0.116(0.027) NA NA NA NA
 Distractor hits L 0–16 6(4) 8(4) 7(4) NA NA NA NA
 Distractor hits R 0–16 6(5) 8(5) 8(4) NA NA NA NA
 Distractor hits total 0–31 12(8) 16(9) 15(8) NA NA NA NA
Trail Making B Reference range: Tercile 1: 0–11 months Tercile 2:11–33 months Tercile 3:33–111 months NA NA NA NA
Mean (Std) Mean (Std) Mean (Std)
 Total time (s) 24–92 59(12) 57(28) 65(19) NA NA NA NA
 Dwell time (s) 9–49 32(10) 25(10) 33(12) NA NA NA NA
 Time ratio 0.3551–1.7837 1.148(0.524) 1.125(0.413) 0.994(0.301) NA NA NA NA
 Error count 0–6 2(2) 3(3) 2(3) NA NA NA NA
  1. Healthy control reference range versus terciles for grouping A, based on time since last concussion, across parameters from the five KINARM robot tasks (NA not applicable)