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Table 2 Summary of the paper lists and features

From: Interactive wearable systems for upper body rehabilitation: a systematic review

Reference Technology (n) Placement Feedback Evaluation Wearability Measurement &Rehabilitation
Purpose
Target population
Lee et al. 2010; [37] Accel (n = 2) Upper arm, Forearm KP Concurrent; Kinematic rendering of upper extremity. VR Tech. Accuracy experiment on rotary stage and comparison experiment with goniometer (n = 1) Strapped with Velcro; Attachable; ROM; Improve active joint range of motion; General rehabilitation (arm)
Kapur et al. 2010; [38] Magnetometer (n = 3) Wrist, Elbow, Clavicle KP, KR Concurrent; Kinematic rendering of upper extremity, Vibration for movement direction;
Prescriptive KP FB;
VR; Vibrotactile FB None N/A Full-body Suit;
Embedded, normal wire;
Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; Stroke
Luo et al. 2010; [39] OLE (6), IMU (n = 2) Upper arm, Elbow, Wrist,
Finger
KR Concurrent; VR game based on Kinematic rendering of upper extremity and hand, Sound FB. VR (game);
Auditory FB
Tech. Reliability Test (n = 5); Arm Suit & Glove;
Attachable;
Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; Stroke
Wang et al. 2010; [40] Accel (up to 8), Upper arm,
Elbow, Wrist
KP,
KR
Concurrent;
Movement curve of each sensor node, Video of patient’s training.
Visual FB
(PC, PDA)
Usab. Pre-clinical evaluation trial on patients (n = 2) Strapped with Fabric bands;
Attachable;
Speed & Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; Ligament injury, Hemiplegic rehabilitation
Wai et al. 2010; [41] IRIS mote (accel & gyro) Upper arm Forearm KP,
KR
Concurrent; Kinematic rendering of body, Sensor Reading. Visual FB
(PC)
Tech. Accuracy measurement on subject Based on straps;
Attachable;
Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; General rehabilitation
Dunne et al. 2010; [42] Accel (n = 1) Chest KR Concurrent; Game score based on trunk posture, BW FB on trunk compensatory movement. Visual FB (Multi-Touch Display, game) None N/A Portable device, Attachable; Body Segment Posture; Improve posture and movement performance; Cerebral palsy children
Timmermans et al. 2010; [4] IMU (n = 3) Chest,
Upper arm, Forearm
KP,
KR
Concurrent & Terminal;
Gauge represents real-time joint angle, Avatar animation of upper body, Movement parameters score, etc.;
Visual FB (PC) Usab.
Clini.
Clinical evaluation (n =9) Garment on torso & Strap on arm;
Attachable;
ROM & Body Segment Posture;
Improve active joint range of motion; Improve performance of ADL skills.
Stroke
Harms et al. 2010; [43] Accel (n = 2) Forearm,
Upper arm
KP Concurrent; Avatar animation of upper body; Visual FB Tech. Accuracy test on normal people (n = 5) Embedded into a wearable garment;
Embedded;
ROM; Improve posture; Improve active joint range of motion; General Rehabilitation (Shoulder and Elbow)
Markopoulos et al. 2011; [44] Accel (n = 2) Wrist KR Terminal; Summary FB of arm use; Visual FB
(Watch-like device)
Usab. Preclinical & Usability Test on real patients (n = 9) Watch-like device;
Attachable;
Amount of Use;
Overcome learned non-use; Improve performance of ADL skills.
Stroke
Moya et al. 2011; [45] IMU (n = 4) Back, Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist KP
KR
Concurrent; Avatar animation of bodyand arm movement,
Sphere animation for trajectory indication,
Repetition number, progress bar; Prescriptive;
VR (game) Usab. Preclinical & Usability Test (n = 23 therapists) Special garment fixes sensor with Velcro;
Attachable;
Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; Stroke
Nguyen et al. 2011; [46] OLE, Accel Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist KP Concurrent; Kinematic model of upper arm and forearm; Prescriptive KP; VR Tech. Comparison experiments for accuracy andperformance (n = 3);
Repeatability and Reliability test (n = 5)
Fabric sensor package with Velcro strap;
Embedded;
ROM;Improve active joint range of motion; Stroke
Ambar et al. 2012; [48] Flex sensor, Accel Elbow, Forearm,
Wrist
KR Terminal; The number of the arm bent movement; Visual FB
(LCD)
Tech. 1, sensor performance report; 2, Comparison Experiment of FSRs and EMG; 3, ACC measurement activity. Strapped with Velcro;
Attachable;
Amount of Use; Improve performance of ADL skills. Stroke
Alankus et al. 2012; [49] Accel (Wii built-in, n = 2) Back, Upper arm KR Concurrent; Game result based on both trunk and arm movement; BW FB for trunk and arm compensatory movement; Screen Visual FB (PC game);
Auditory FB
Tech.
Usab.
Validation Test on normal people (n = 2);
Preclinical & Usability Test on patients (n = 11)
Harness with straps around the neck, armband;
Attachable;
Body Segment Posture; Improve posture and movement performance; Stroke
Delbressine et al. 2012; [3] Accel (n = 2) Back, Shoulder KR Concurrent; BW FB on trunk or shoulder compensatory movement with vibration; Visual FB
(Touchscreen)
Usab. Preclinical & Usability Test on patients (n = 7) Vest; Attachable; pocket Body Segment Posture;
Improve posture;
Improve performance of ADL;
Stroke
Jeong et al. 2012; [50] Accel (n = 1) Wrist KR Concurrent & Terminal;
Speed, count, time of cycling movement;
Visual FB (PC) Tech. Accuracy test on normal people (n = 7) Strapped with Velcro; Attachable; Amount of Use & Speed; Encourage arm hand use;
Motivate exercise performance;
General Rehabilitation
(arm)
Myllymaa et al. 2012; [51] Accel (n = 1) Arm KP Concurrent; Motion instruction; Prescriptive KP FB; Vibrotactile FB, None N/A Strapped with band; Attachable; Amount of Use;
Improve muscle strength;
General Rehabilitation (arm)
Ding et al. 2013; [52] IMU (n = 2) Forearm, Upper arm KP, KR Concurrent; Indication of movement direction for upper extremity; BW FB for the reference position;
Prescriptive KP FB;
Vibrotactile FB Tech. Accuracy test on subjects (n = 5) Strapped with Velcro; Attachable; Body Segment Posture; Improve posture and movement performance; Stroke
Saggio et al. 2013; [53] Flex sensor (n = 5) Finger,
Palm
KP Concurrent; Hand avatar; Visual FB (PC) Tech.
Usab.
Repeatability and reliability test on normal people (n = 6);
Usability test on normal people (n = 6)
Glove;Attachable; ROM;
Improve active joint range of motion;
General Rehabilitation (hand)
Spina et al. 2013; [54] IMU (Smartphone built in) Limb segment KR
KP
Concurrent & Terminal;
Teach mode and Train mode; Error notification, repetition number, motion speed; Prescriptive KP;
Visual FB
(Smartphone);
Auditory FB
Usab. Usability test on normal people (n = 4) and patients (n = 7) Strapped with holster; Attachable; ROM;
Improve active joint range of motion;
COPD (Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease rehabilitation)
Bleser et al. 2013; [55] IMU (up to 10) Chest, Upper arm, Forearm,
Pelvis
KR KP Concurrent & Terminal;
Movement Error notification and correction FB; Training time, repetition number, progress bar; Descriptive;
Visual FB (Television screen);
Auditory FB
Tech.
Usab.
Technical evaluation based on therapy ground truth (n = 7)
Clinical evaluation focusing on usability and acceptance on patients (n = 30)
Based on Velcro straps and elastic silicon; Attachable; ROM & Body Segment Posture;
Improve active joint range of motion;
Improve movement performance;
General Rehabilitation;
Daponte et al. 2013; [56] IMU (>2) Limb segment (Upper arm, Forearm) KP Concurrent;
Avatar animation of arm movement, Real-time joint angle & ROM value;
VR Tech. Function validation test (n = 1) Velcro based Sleevelet units;
Embedded;
ROM; Improve active joint range of motion; General Rehabilitation;
Luster et al. 2013; [57] Accel (n = 2), Wrist KR Concurrent; BW FB on impaired arm use; Vibrotactile FB, Usab. Usability test of vibration Feedback, Stroke patients (n = 4) Wristband;
Embedded;
Amount of Use;
Overcome learned non-use;
Stroke
Bhomer et al.[58], 2013; Stretch sensing fabric Arm, low back KP Concurrent; Sound FB matched the arm and low back movement,
Movement region indication;
Visual FB (Smartphone);
Auditory FB
Usab. Usability test with therapist and patients Knitted garment;
Integrated;
ROM;
Improve active joint range of motion;
Alzheimer
Friedman et al. 2014; [47] Electrical lead (n = 6) Finger KR Concurrent; Game result based on finger pinch and grasp motion; Screen Visual FB (PC game);
Auditory FB
Usab.
Randomized Clic.
Usability test with storke patients (n = 10)
Randomized clinical trial with stroke patients (n = 12).
Glove; Integrated; Body Segment Posture; Improve coordination; Improve performance of ADL skills. Stroke
Ferreira et al. 2014; [59] IMU (Smartphone built-in) Wrist KR Concurrent; Game results on arm movement performance; Visual FB (Smartphone game) Tech.
Usab.
Accuracy measurement on structure,
Usability of the system on patients (n = 1)
Wristband;
Attachable;
Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; Stroke
Fortino et al. 2014; [60] Accel (n = 2) Upper arm,
Elbow
KP,
KR
Concurrent & Terminal;
Kinematic rendering of limb bending movementperformance, Improvement index data; Descriptive;
Visual FB (Smartphone) Tech. Estimation accuracy on normal subject (n = 1) Elastic bracelets;
Attachable;
ROM; Improve active joint range of motion; General Rehabilitation (arm)
Panchanathan et al. 2014; [61] IMU (n > 1) Upper arm,
Forearm
KP Concurrent; Vibration instruction for position and speed error; Vibrotactile FB Usab. Usability test withnormal people (n = 16) Sleeve; Embedded; Conductive ribbon Body Segment Posture & Speed;
Improve movement performance;
General Rehabilitation(arm)
Rahman et al. 2014; [62] LDR sensor Hand KR Terminal; Game score on arm movement; VR (game) Tech. Accuracy and sensitivity test on normal people (n = 2) Fabric Glove;
Embedded;
Normal wire
Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; Cerebral Palsy
Salim et al. 2014; [63] Tilt sensor (n = 2) Hand KP Concurrent; Indication of arm movement direction; Visual FB
(Smartphone)
Tech. Pilot experiment (n = 1) Fabric Glove;
Embedded; Normal wire
Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; Stroke
Friedman et al. 2014; [64] Magnetometer (n = 2),
Accel (n = 1)
Wrist, finger KP Concurrent; Amount of use of wrist and finger; Visual FB
(Tablet)
Tech. Accuracy test on normal peoplev (n = 7) Watch-like device, ring;
Attachable;
Amount of Use;
Encourage arm hand use; Motivate exercise performance;
General Rehabilitation (hand)
Parker et al. 2014; [65] IMU (n = 3) Chest, Upper arm, Wrist KP,
KR
Concurrent & Terminal;
Characteristics and results of performance by avatar presentation and charts; Prescriptive;
Visual FB (PC) Usab. Home-based on usability test on real patients (n = 5) Garment on torso & Strap on arm;
Attachable;
ROM; Improve active joint range of motion; Improve performance of ADL skills; Stroke
Halic et al. 2014; [66] Flex sensor (n = 5), Finger KP,
KR
Concurrent; Avatar presentation, Game score; Visual Game
(Smartphone)
Usab. Usability test with normal people (n = 46) Glove; Attachable; Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; General Rehabilitation (hand and wrist)
Tsekleves et al. 2014; [67] IMU
(Wii plus built-in, n = 2)
Upper arm,
Forearm
KR,
KP
Concurrent & Terminal;
Avatar presentation, game score, ROM value;
VR (game) Tech.
Usab.
Clic.
Accuracy test on structure;
Usability test with stroke patients (n = 3);
Small Clinical trial (n = 1)
Based on strips;
Attachable;
Body Segment Posture;
Improve active joint range of motion;
Improve movement performance;
Stroke
Moreira et al. 2014; [68] IMU (n = 11) Finger, Palm KP 3d hand model animation, VR Tech. Accuracy test with structure;
Reliability evaluation on normal people (n = 1);
Glove; Embedded; ROM; Improve active joint range of motion; General Rehabilitation (hand)
O’Flynn et al. 2015; [69] IMU (n = 16) Finger, Palm KR,KP Concurrent & Terminal;
Movement error summary;
3d hand model animation, dynamic movement value& analysis;
VR Tech. Comparison accuracy test on structure. N/A ROM; Improve active joint range of motion; Arthritis Rehabiliation
Hermanis et al. 2015; [70] IMU (up to 200) Back KP Concurrent; 3D rendering surface showing the current posture of back or limb; Visual FB
(Smartphone, Tablet or PC)
None N/A Sensing fabric based on sensor grids; Embedded; normal wire Body Segment Posture; Improve posture; Bones trauma or General Rehabilitation
Holden et al. 2015 [71] Accel (n = 2) Wrist KR Concurrent & Terminal;
Training notification;
Visual FB (Watch-like device);
Vibrotactile FB;
Usab. Usability test on patients (n = 7) Watch-like device; Attachable; Amount of Use;
Encourage arm hand use;
Stroke
Ongvisatepaiboon et al. 2015; [72] Accel (Smartphone built-in) Elbow KP,
KR
Concurrent & Terminal;
Shoulder joint angle value, repetition number;
Visual FB
(Smartphone)
Tech. Accuracy test on normal people (n = 1) Armband; Attachable Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; Frozen shoulder rehabilitation
Lee et al. 2015; [73] Accel (n = 1) Back KR Concurrent; BW FB of unbalance error; Visual FB (Smartphone);
Vibrotactile FB
None N/A Based on strips;
Embedded, normal wire
Body Segment Posture; Improve posture; General Rehabilitation
Rahman et al. 2015; [74] Accel (n = 1) Upper arm KR Concurrent; Successful repetition number; Visual FB (Smartphone Game); Tech. Accuracy test on normal people (n = 5) Based on strips;
Attachable
Body Segment Posture; Improve movement performance; Spinal cord injury
Klaassen et al. 2015; [75] IMU (n = 8),
KPF strain (n = 2), KPF goniometer,
Chest, Upper arm, Forearm,
Spine, Hand
KR,KP Terminal; Range of motion value of body segments;
Reaching performance;
3D full body reconstruction;
Visual FB; Usab. Usability test on normal people. Shirt and glove;
Integrated;
Embedded;
ROM; Improve active joint range of motion; Stroke
Wang et al. 2016; [76] IMU (n = 3) Back, Shoulder KR Concurrent; Torso and shoulder movement value;
BW FB on compensatory movement of torso or shoulder;
Visual FB (Smartphone);
Vibrotactile FB;
Auditory FB
Tech.
Usab.
Accuracy test on normal people (n = 7)
Usability test on patients (n = 8)
Embedded into a wearable garment;
Embedded; conductive yarn
Body Segment Posture;
Improve posture and movement performance;
Stroke, shoulder pain
Bittel et al. 2016; [77] Accel (Smartphone built-in) Arm KP Concurrent & Terminal;
Angular movement error;
Visual FB (Smartphone) Tech. Accuracy and precision test (Comparison experiment with Biodex isokinetic dynamometer) N/A; Attachable ROM; Improve active joint range of motion; General Rehabilitation
Newbold et al. 2016; [78] IMU (Smartphone built-in) Low back KP Concurrent; Sinification based on stretch forward movement; Auditory FB Usab. Usability test on normal people (n = 21); Strapped with band; Attachable; ROM; Improve active joint range of motion; Reduce pain; Chronic pain rehabilitation
Ploderer et al. 2016; [79] IMU (n = 3) Shoulder, Elbow,
Wrist
KP,
KR
Terminal; Movement quality, joint ROM value and arm movement heat map; Exercise time and movements number; Visual FB (PC) Tech.
Usab.
Accuracy test on normal people (n = 1);
Usability test on therapists (n = 8)
Based on Velcro straps; Attachable; ROM & Body Segment Posture;
Improve active joint range of motion;
Improve posture and movement performance;
Stroke
  1. Abbreviations: KR Knowledge of results, KP Knowledge of performance, ROM Range of motion, FB Feedback, FSR Force sensitive resistor, Accel Accelerometer, IMU Inertial measurement unit, OLE Optical Linear Encoder, LDR sensor Light Dependent Resistor, BW FB BandWidth Feedback, VR Virtual Reality, ROM Range of motion, Tech. Technical evaluation, Usab. Usability test, Clini. Clinical trial, PC Personal Computer, KPF Knitted Piezoresistive Fabric