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Table 3 Training outcome in upper and lower limb studies

From: Markerless motion capture systems as training device in neurological rehabilitation: a systematic review of their use, application, target population and efficacy

Reference Body part Design Intervention Clinical outcome measures Results (ICF level)
Subjects (n) ICF level Weeks or sessions Frequency ICF level Motor outcome Within group Between group
Levin 2012 [2] UL RCT Subacute stroke (12) A + P 3 weeks 3 × 45 min/week F + A FMA upper extremity, CSI, RPSS, BBT, WMFT, MAL, patients comments FES, AES Stronger effect of training on WMFT in VR group at post-test compared to conventional group.
Shiri 2012 [35] UL Case series (Sub)acute stroke (6) A 10 sessions, 4 weeks 2–3 × 45 min/week F + A + P FMA, WFMT, MAL, DY, BBT, VAS Pain, SF-36 F*, A*, P£ NA
Sin 2013 [3] UL RCT Chronic stroke (40) A 6 weeks 3 × 1 h/week F + A AROM upper extremity, FMA, BBT F*, A* F*, A*
Lloréns 2015 [32] LL RCT Chronic stroke (20) A 4 weeks 5 × 1 h/week A BBS, POMAb, POMAg, BBA, 10MWT; Short Feedback Questionnaire A* A*
Lloréns 2015 [33] LL RCT Chronic stroke (30) A 20 sessions 3 × 45 min/week A BBS, POMAb, POMAg, BBA, SUS, IMI, cost A* No significance found
Lozano-Quilis 2014 [21] LL RCT MS (11) F + A 10 weeks 1 × 1 h/week F + A BBS, POMAb, SLB, 10MWT, TUG, SEQ F*, A* F*, A*
  1. UL Upper limb, LL Lower limb, RCT randomized controlled trial, ICF International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, F function, A activity, P participation, WMFT Wolf Motor Function Test, FMA Fugl Meyer Assessment, MAL Motor Activity Log, AROM Active Range of Motion, BBT Box and Blocks Test, CSI Composite Spasticity Index, RPSS Reaching Performance Scale for Stroke, DY Dynamometer, VAS Visual Analogue Scale, SF-36 Short Form 36, MS Multiple Sclerosis, BBS Berg Balance Scale, POMA Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (b = balance subscale; g = gait subscale), 10MWT 10 m walking test, BBA Brunnel Balance Assessment, SUS System Usability Scale, IMI Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, SLB Single Leg Balance Test, TUG Time Up and Go test, SEQ Suitability Evaluation Questionnaire
  2. *: significant p value (p < 0.05) in one or more outcome parameters; £: significant p value (p < 0.05) in pre- vs posttest; not at follow-up; ES: Effect size
  3. NA: Not applicable