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Table 2 Stroke Participant Task Performance

From: KAPS (kinematic assessment of passive stretch): a tool to assess elbow flexor and extensor spasticity after stroke using a robotic exoskeleton

  Cut off percentile Healthy Control Data
n = 96
No Spasticity n = 17 Flexors Only
n = 13
Extensors Only
n = 3
Both Muscle Groups
n = 13
Inter Rater (ICC) Clinical Correlations
MAS MTS
Extension (%) Mean (cut off value) (%) (%) (%) (%) (r)   V1 V2 V3
 Peak Velocity (°/s) <5 306 (286) 41 77 100 92 0.90 -0.47 −0.33 -0.51 -0.51
 Final Angle (°) <5 M: 143 (140)
F: 144 (141)
18 54 67 85 0.86 -0.46 −0.34 -0.44 −0.39
 Creep (°) >95 −0.05 (0.16) 12 54 67 77 0.66 0.55 0.40 0.44 0.45
Difference            
 Peak Velocity (°/s) >95 M: 5.4 (33.5)
F: 3.1 (27.5)
47 85 100 92 0.95 0.15 −0.25 0.04 0.09
 Final Angle (°) <5 0.19 (−1.9) 29 77 100 85 0.91 -0.49 −0.35 -0.49 -0.45
 Creep (°) >95 M:0.09 (0.26)
F: 0.04 (0.37)
24 62 33 77 0.74 0.59 0.40 0.44 0.45
Flexion            
 Peak Velocity (°/s) >95 M: 269 (240)
F: 280 (255)
41 62 100 92 0.87 −0.34 −0.27 −0.38 −0.34
 Final Angle (°) <5 M: 68 (69)
F: 67 (70)
47 38 100 77 0.84 0.46 0.32 0.53 0.45
 Creep (°) >95 −0.04 (0.28) 24 85 100 92 0.86 0.62 0.34 0.43 0.57
Difference            
 Peak Velocity (°/s) >95 M:-1.5(33.7)
F: −0.9 (30.7)
59 85 100 92 0.88 0.12 0.30 0.17 0.17
 Final Angle (°) >95 −0.01 (2.06) 18 46 100 54 0.88 0.50 0.32 0.48 0.48
 Creep (°) >95 0.009 (0.41) 12 62 67 92 0.79 0.64 0.36 0.58 0.55
  1. Abbreviations: M male, F female, ICC Intra-class Correlation, MAS Modified Ashworth Scale, MTS Modified Tardieu Scale, V1–3 reflect the 3 test speeds V1 is slow as possible, V2 is speed of limb falling under gravity, V3 is moving as fast as possible
  2. Difference parameters are the between-arm differences. Italicized values for clinical correlations represent P < 0.004 (Bonferroni corrected, n = 12 tests)