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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants

From: Effect of EMG-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation with bilateral arm training on hemiplegic shoulder pain and arm function after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

  NMES-BAT (n = 19) TENS-BAT (n = 19) P values
Age (mean years ± SD) 58.89 ± 11.93 62.61 ± 9.59 0.30
Gender (male: female) 13: 6 12: 7 0.73
Type of stroke (ischemic: hemorrhagic) 9: 10 9: 10 1.00
Side of hemiplegia (right: left) 10: 9 7: 12 0.52
Dominant hand (right: left) 18: 1 18: 1 1.00
Time since stroke (mean months ± SD) 31.89 ± 55.59 33.47 ± 51.94 0.93
Brunnstrom stage-Upper limb, median
-Proximal part (range) 5 (3–5) 5 (4–5) 0.29
-Distal part (range) 5 (1–5) 5 (1–5) 0.70
Mini Mental State Examination 28.63 ± 1.61 28.74 ± 1.70 0.85
Shoulder subluxationa, n (%) 9 (47%) 8 (42%) 0.74
  1. Abbreviations: SD indicates standard deviation; n, subgroup number, NMES neuromuscular electrical stimulation, TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, BAT bilateral arm training
  2. aShoulder subluxation was defined as incorrect alignment between the scapula and the humerus, as compared with the unaffected shoulder