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Table 3 Clinical outcome measure results for pre-, mid- and post-training CBT and changes from pre-training CBT for the EG and CG. Average values with standard deviations are shown

From: Effects of long-term balance training with vibrotactile sensory augmentation among community-dwelling healthy older adults: a randomized preliminary study

  Experimental Group Control Group
  Pre Mid Post Mid - Pre Post - Pre Pre Mid Post Mid - Pre Post - Pre
ABC score 90.9 ± 3.5 89.4 ± 6.4 91.3 ± 6.3 −1.5 ± 8.1 0.5 ± 8.7 94.0 ± 3.5 91.8 ± 4.2 93.8 ± 3.2 −2.2 ± 2.8 −0.2 ± 2.4
SOT scorea, b 69.3 ± 11.8 77.0 ± 5.7 81.3 ± 3.9 7.7 ± 7.8 12.0 ± 12.1 67.8 ± 5.1 72.3 ± 12.0 71.0 ± 14.5 4.5 ± 5.5 3.2 ± 5.5
Somatosensory reliance 0.98 ± 0.02 0.98 ± 0.02 0.98 ± 0.02 0.00 ± 0.03 0.01 ± 0.04 0.95 ± 0.02 0.96 ± 0.02 0.95 ± 0.02 0.01 ± 0.03 0.00 ± 0.02
Visual reliance 0.82 ± 0.11 0.86 ± 0.07 0.89 ± 0.03 0.04 ± 0.11 0.07 ± 0.11 0.87 ± 0.05 0.87 ± 0.09 0.88 ± 0.10 0.01 ± 0.06 0.01 ± 0.08
Vestibular reliancea 0.53 ± 0.21 0.63 ± 0.20 0.74 ± 0.06 0.10 ± 0.08 0.21 ± 0.17 0.40 ± 0.28 0.57 ± 0.33 0.56 ± 0.31 0.17 ± 0.23 0.16 ± 0.24
Mini-BESTest28a,b 22.2 ± 2.3 25.5 ± 1.5 25.7 ± 1.5 3.3 ± 2.8 3.5 ± 2.9 23.8 ± 1.7 24.2 ± 1.9 24.2 ± 1.2 0.3 ± 0.8 0.3 ± 2.7
Mini-BESTest32a,b 25.0 ± 2.6 28.7 ± 2.2 29.3 ± 1.9 3.7 ± 3.5 4.3 ± 3.4 26.8 ± 2.0 27.5 ± 2.7 26.5 ± 1.4 0.7 ± 1.6 −0.3 ± 3.2
5xSST duration (s) 13.5 ± 2.7 11.2 ± 2.3 10.7 ± 2.9 −2.4 ± 1.4c −2.9 ± 1.7c 11.4 ± 3.8 9.9 ± 1.4 10.8 ± 2.2 −1.5 ± 3.9 −0.6 ± 4.7
FSST duration (s) 9.9 ± 2.2 9.4 ± 2.3 9.5 ± 2.1 −0.6 ± 0.6 −0.6 ± 0.5 10.5 ± 1.8 10.8 ± 1.5 10.1 ± 2.2 0.3 ± 1.5 −0.4 ± 1.2
FRT (cm) 35.0 ± 6.1 29.9 ± 5.75 31.9 ± 5.0 −5.1 ± 4.3 −3.0 ± 4.2 31.9 ± 5.2 28.9 ± 3.3 35.0 ± 2.7 −3.0 ± 4.1 3.1 ± 3.8
Normal gait speed (m/s) 1.22 ± 0.08 1.28 ± 0.16 1.27 ± 0.19 0.06 ± 0.17 0.06 ± 0.20 1.29 ± 0.11 1.23 ± 0.14 1.26 ± 0.16 −0.07 ± 0.07 −0.04 ± 0.15
Fast gait speed (m/s) 1.62 ± 0.24 1.70 ± 0.28 1.69 ± 0.29 0.07 ± 0.21 0.06 ± 0.31 1.58 ± 0.11 1.57 ± 0.18 1.54 ± 0.19 −0.01 ± 0.10 −0.04 ± 0.16
TUG duration (s) 10.8 ± 2.1 9.6 ± 1.2 10.5 ± 1.4 −1.1 ± 1.8 −0.3 ± 1.4 10.0 ± 1.3 9.8 ± 1.6 9.8 ± 1.1 −0.2 ± 1.0 −0.2 ± 1.6
TUG-COG duration (s)a 13.3 ± 2.9 11.6 ± 1.6 11.8 ± 2.1 −1.7 ± 1.8 −1.5 ± 1.4 10.9 ± 2.7 11.0 ± 2.3 9.7 ± 1.6 0.2 ± 1.8 −1.1 ± 2.8
  1. Superscripts indicate asignificant main effects, bsignificant interaction effects from the linear mixed model (p < 0.05), and csignificant differences from the group-paired t-tests (p < 0.017)