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Table 2 Summary of the key outcome measures

From: Locomotor training using an overground robotic exoskeleton in long-term manual wheelchair users with a chronic spinal cord injury living in the community: Lessons learned from a feasibility study in terms of recruitment, attendance, learnability, performance and safety

Attendance Learnability and Performance Mobility Aid and Physical Assistance Safety
Subject ID # of training sessions completed (/18) Length of time spent standing upright (min/session) Length of time spent walking (min/session) Number of steps taken (steps/session) Walking Speed (m/s) First training session Last training session Use of controller (session achieved) Shoulder pain or stiffness Thumb Tendinitis (Adductor) Knee instability Pressure Drop (Request to sit) Fracture (Ankle - Bilat)
Level of assistance Walking Aid Number of PT needed Level of assistance Walking Aid Number of PT needed
mean (SD) [min;max] mean (SD) [min;max] mean (SD) [min;max] Start End
1 18 52(12) [19; 70] 30(9) [8;45] 1240(492) [297;2087] 0.16 0.29 3 F.C. 2 5 F.C. 1 15
2 18 49(6) [41; 62] 31(9) [13;49] 1169(412) [420;2050] 0.19 0.30 3 F.C. 2 6 F.C. 1 15
3 18 56(13) [33;87] 30(7) [19;41] 828(260) [407;1262] 0.12 0.24 3 R.W. 2 4 F.C. 1 Not Achieved
4 17 54(11) [29;75] 33(10) [20;54] 1096(453) [371;2148] 0.16 0.23 3 R.W. 2 5 F.C. 1 Not Achieved
5 14 37(11) [18;51] 19(8) [5;33] 588(293) [114;1056] 0.20 2 R.W. 2 3 R.W. 2 Not Achieved
6 18 53(9) [29;63] 40(11) [19;52] 1575(535) [738;2272] 0.16 0.27 4 R.W. 1 6 F.C. 1 12
7 18 56(9) [34;71] 38(9) [22;54] 1226(407) [768;2101] 0.13 0.30 3 R.W. 2 4 R.W. 1 Not Achieved
8 1 51- [51;51] 19- [19;19] 455 - [455;455] 3 R.W. 2 3 R.W. 2 Not Achieved
9 18 45(14) [18;60] 34(16) [7;55] 1347(757) [221;2397] 0.13 0.24 3 R.W. 1 6 F.C. 1 13
10 18 32(10) [12;50] 21(9) [6;40] 765(386) [254;1555] 0.17 0.17 3 R.W. 2 4 R.W. 1 Not Achieved
11 18 55(7) [37;64] 41(11) [19;53] 1504(491) [601;2097] 0.16 0.29 3 F.C. 2 5 F.C. 1 12
12 18 57(6) [38;65] 44(9) [24;59] 1266(454) [445;2093] 0.12 0.22 3 F.C. 2 5 F.C. 1 12
13 18 43(13) [17;62] 29(11) [11;45] 1057(485) [317;1702] 0.13 0.14 3 R.W. 2 4 F.C. 1 Not Achieved
14 18 55(10) [39;71] 42(12) [22;58] 1711(614) [567;2527] 0.15 0.28 3 R.W. 2 6 F.C. 1 8
Mean 17.6a 49.7   33.4b   1190b   0.15 0.25             
Standard deviation 1.1 12.7   12.5   561.4   0.02 0.05             
  1. Level of Assistance:(1): Dependent: During dependent mobility, the participant is unable to help at all. The physical therapist - or another healthcare provider - will do all of the work
  2. (2): Maximal Assist: The participant performs 25% or less of the work during mobility and the physical therapist provides the rest of the work
  3. (3): Moderate Assist: The participant performs between 25% and 75% of the work necessary to move and the physical therapist provides the rest of the work
  4. (4): Minimal Assist: The participant performs 75% of the work to move and the physical therapist provides the rest of the work
  5. (5): Contact Guard Assist: The physical therapist needs to merely have one or two hands on the participant’s body, but provides no other assistance to perform the functional task. The contact is made to help steady the body or help with balance
  6. (6): Stand-by Assist: The physical therapist does not touch the participant or provide any assistance, but he or she may need to be close by for safety in case the participant loses their balance or needs help to maintain safety during the task being performed
  7. (7): Modified Independence: The participant can walk with the exoskeleton without any supervision, with the help of a walker or crutches
  8. (8): Total independence: The participant can walk with the exoskeleton without supervision and the use of a walking aid
  9. Walking Aid: R.W. Rigid walker and F.C. Forearm crutches
  10. aParticipant 8 was excluded
  11. bWeighted average